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what were the terms of the treaty of shimonoseki
- China gives Korea independence
- China cedes to Jap Taiwan, eastern Liaodong
- china is paying jap for war indemnity
- open up districts
Philippine war of independence
Spanish American War
1898, victory over Spain made US a colonial power, got Cuba, puerto rico, guam and the phillippines and hawaii
open door policy
- john hays 1899-1900 after the Spanish American war
- -demanded the other great powers to respect the principle of equal commerical opportunity in the spheres of influence they are consolidating in china
- levying taxes is in the power of China
- -US wants to expand through economic hegemony rather than imperial control
march 1 movement
- 1919 earliest public displays of Korean resistance during the occupation of the Korean Empire by Japan.
- result of the repressive nature of colonial occupation under the military rule of the Japanese Empire following 1905, and the "Fourteen Points" outlining the right of national "self-determination" proclaimed by President Woodrow Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919
Ho chi minh
He led the Việt Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954. first prime minister and president (1945–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam(North Vietnam)
- Chinese political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975
- Chiang was an influential member of theKuomintang (KMT)
- Chiang led China in the Second Sino-Japanese War (the Chinese theater of World War II), consolidating power from the party's former regional warlords. Unlike Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek was socially conservative, promoting traditional Chinese culture in the New Life Movement and rejecting western democracy and the nationalist democratic socialism that Sun embraced in favour of an authoritarian government.
why did GMT not succeed?
The CCP defeated the Nationalists in 1949. Westad says the Communists won the Civil War because they made fewer military mistakes than Chiang Kai-Shek, and because in his search for a powerful centralized government, Chiang antagonized too many interest groups in China. his party was weakened in the war against Japan. Meanwhile the Communists told different groups, such as peasants, exactly what they wanted to hear, and cloaked themselves in the cover of Chinese Nationalism.
Cai Yuan pei
- Minister of Education in 1912 who
- then resigned in the same year. From 1916-1926 he was the Chancellor of Beijing
- University. 1927 President of the University Council and in 1928 instrumental
- in the founding of Academica Sinica. military education, utilitarian education, moral, world outlook education and asethetic
- raised art to extremely high position
- 1928 state sponsored art academy
new cultural movement
when was the may fourth movement
china against japan
- proposal for literary reform included 8 don’ts regarding the use of language
- this advocated abandoning classical
- language to adopt a modern vernacular style baihua
- 1919 the successful nation-wide campaign that the students mounted after police repression, as well as to the movement of
- reform that had begun mid-decade. Eventually the Beijing government was forced
- to dismiss several pro-Japanese ministers, and China refused to sign the
- Versailles peace treaty.
1858-1927 (china is not what he read in classical texts)
The KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren andSun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. Sun was theprovisional president but he did not have military power and ceded the first presidency to the military leader Yuan Shikai. After Yuan's death, China was divided by warlords, while the KMT was able to control only part of the south. Later led by Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT formed a military and succeeded in its Northern Expedition to unify much of China. It was the ruling party from 1928 until its retreat to Taiwan in 1949 after being defeated by the Communist Party of China (CPC) during the Chinese Civil War.
what led to the Sino jap war?
In 1931, theJapanese invasion of Manchuria by Japan's Kwantung Army followed the Mukden Incident. The last of these incidents was the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, marking the beginning of total war between the two countries.
- In 1931, theJapanese invasion of Manchuria by Japan's Kwantung Army followed the Mukden Incident. The last of these incidents was the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, marking the beginning of total war between the two countries.
- creation of a puppet state, Manchukuo, with Puyi, the last monarch of the Qing Dynasty, as its sovereign
Marco Polo bridge
a battle between the Republic of China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army, often used as the marker for the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945)
The American Practical Navigator
1885 put in the book nothing I can't teach the crew, including the cook know how the lunar stars and the ship navigation worked
what was the result of increased public transportation?
expanded city limits and increase in public health standards
Metro opened in london
metro, subway opened in london 1863
1869, ship transportation between Europe and eastern Asia without navigation around Africa.
1914 U.S can go through the canal instead of across the whole south america continent
why is the rr important?
RR control people and resources, who can move what
second sino jap war
- 1932 Jap attacks Shanghai (allowed to have forces around nanjing)
- Chiang Kaishek conserved frces move north.
- 1937 Marco Polo Bridge bomb goes off, Jap fights, China resists, Jap takes Nanjing
admiral togo heihachiro
- 1848-1934 led Jap victory in Russo Jap War (1904-1905)
- -naval blockage of Russian military base at port aurther
- Battle of Tsushima 1905
what are Sun Yat sen's plan for strong chinese government centered around?
- livelihood of the people
- adopted Communism while student at Peking university (founded CCP)
- Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun
- Marxist theory of the state, the
- army is the chief component of state power
- We are advocates of the abolition
- of war, we do not want war; but war can only be abolished through war
who became the leader of Nationalist party after death of Sun-Yat sen?
Chiang Kai shek 1925
- The movement took place at Yan'an after the communists'Long March
- More than 10,000 were killed in the "rectification" process, as the Party made efforts to attack intellectuals and replace the culture of the May Fourth Movement with that of Communist culture
- The Rectification Campaign was successful in either convincing or coercing the other leaders of the CCP to support Mao
Great Leap Forward 1
- The campaign was led byMao
- aimed to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a communist society through rapid industrialization and collectivization (cause great Famine)
- Chief changes in the lives of rural Chinese included the introduction of a mandatory process of agricultural collectivization, which was introduced incrementally.
- Private farming was prohibited, and those engaged in it were labeled as counter revolutionaries and persecuted.
- 1915 Jap demanded to get special privileges in China; the other superpowers could not oppose b/c of their involvement in the war
- Yuan shikai signed them
- division under his command was the only remnant of China’s army that survived the Boxer Rebellion of 1900
- provisional president in Nanjing recommended Yuan to be the first president of China
- his plan for a gigantic foreign loan was obstructed by the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) in the National Assembly, he ruthlessly murdered the chairman of the party and undermined the assembly, thus bringing about a revolt against him in 1913
- he contrived to make himself president for life and then boldly announced a new imperial dynasty with himself as emperor in 1915–16
new culture movemnet
- when the journal "New Youth" began publication
- create contemporary chinese culture (adoption of vernacular Chinese)
- attacked Confucianism, the traditional family system, arranged marriages, and popular
- religious beliefs as obstacles to China's modernization
- opened discussion about eastern vs. western civilization, science replaced religion
1926-28 KMT) from 1926 to 1928. Its main objective was to rule China by ending the rule of Beiyang government as well as the local warlords. It led to the end of theWarlord Era, the reunification of China in 1928, and the establishment of the Nanjing government.
Peasant association movement spreads, notably in Guangdong and Hunan; Canton coup,first break between Chiang Kaishek and Communists; Chiang launches final stage of Northern March
what did the Jap see annexation of korea as?
steeping stone into manchuria 1910
why did Jap wanted Manchuria?
- 1929 protective buffer against Soviet aggression and as source of resources if war broke out with US
- want to conquer the world (first China)
- powerful army by Jap called the Kwantung Army
how did the Chinese respond to Jap trying to overtake Manchuria?
- its policy was non-resistance, non-compromise and non-direct negotiation
- Chiang Kaishek preferred to use League of Naitons
what was the tripartite Pact?
- 1940 between Jap, Germany and Italy
- -Jap recognized the two powers in Europe
- -germany and italy recognize Jap in greater east asia