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A completely new technology that disrupts the balance of the system
Ex: cell phone disrupt line phones
Multiple Discovery Theory
critical points are thought by many people. More than one person thought created it
users becoming frustrated that copyright protection software cannot be circumvented. People will become too frustrated and stop trying
the way software is designed by loosely organized collaborative teams where code is freely made public to any and all interested contributors (tinkering)
Digital Rights Management. This strategy involves encrypting digital machines and application with anti-copyright technologies as to automatically regulate every single user in hopes to anticipate and preempt infringement before it happens. Aims to stop infringement
Technology that doesn't give much direction allowing the users to utilize it in a variety of ways
EX Twitter- users came up with the re-tweet so the creators incorporated it
Skilled jobs boiled down to the smallest possible units mindless brainless tasks that are efficient (assembly)
- Monopoly allowed by the government.
- EX Bell Phones
What are the implications of a monopoly?
management is terrible, slow innovation-no competition, very reliable, steady money
- Third party company attachment to the phone, AT&T sued them by Supreme Court
- ruled they couldn’t control phone accessories. Open floodgates to down regulated monopoly, answering machines
The groups and individuals who participate in a technology's design
EX Freedom Tower-port authority, families, architects, NYPD
Schumpter believed that when a new product comes along it destroys the previous one. Destruction within.
Ex: Ipod-Walkman, VCR-DVD, Typewriter-Computer
- In charge of NBC radio. He wanted the TV to follow a radio format of broadcasting so NBC could be in control.Convinced the FCC that it
- would be dangerous to have independent TV operators. Govt put a ban on TV tech.
- managed damper tech development until his company could take advantage of it.
- We didn’t get to experience as an innovative begging, he immediately followed a
- broadcast model like a radio
Mass Communication Technology
Content is determined by the producers, One-to-many, closed system, low interaction, low control over message content, large, diverse, heterogeneous, anonymous, geographically dispersed and socially distant audience
Interpersonal Communication Technology
Content determined by users, one-to-one, open-ended, high interaction, high control over message content, small-usually know audience
The TV Problem
- Walter Lippman, TV is:
- Profit seeking, fraudulent, violent, little public control, focus on advertising, no competition, content pushed on the audio, public TV
Williams' 9 Theses of Television
Different explanations to how TV developed. Divides theses into Technological Determinism and Symptomatic Technology. Thinks both are wrong because they separate TV from society.
TV became available as a result of scientific and technical research, and in its character and uses both served and exploited the needs of a new kind of large scale and complex but atomized society.
Tech as by product of a social process .Tech develop in a way that is a symptom of the social order
- Society is the deciding factor not technology determined more by context
- than the technology itself. Technologies are developed with a purpose in mind.
- When a tech is invented they were all trying to solve a problem.
EX Space X
- social conditions there was a contradiction between the new mobility of the modern 20th century world. People were moving into cities not agricultural world don’t know all
- your neighbors. People want to stay home, nuclear family, new suburbs. Contradiction of seeing the world but staying home. TV allows you to participate and see the world while staying home.TV allows you view the world
- in private
The way in which technologies become part of everyday life. Ex flatscreen TV
4 Parts of Domestication Theory
Appropriation, Objectification, Incorporation, Conversion
Rear-View Mirror Thinking
A new medium is just and extension of another one. Limits what you think a new technology can/can't do. We can't even imagine.We see future inventions through the view of the old
Technology Vs. Medium
- Technology is the physical apparatus (TV set)
- Medium is the use of the tech. and what it is used for. Technology becomes a medium as it employs a particular symbolic code, finding its place in a particular social setting, insinuating into economic and political contexts
Characteristics of TV as a Medium
Visually engaging, short frames and shots fast changing images, variety of subject matter, requires minimal comprehensive skills, provides emotional gratification
TV changes the status of being informed. It is misleading, misplaced, irrelevant, fragmented or superficial information that creates the illusion of knowing something but which in fact leads one away from knowing.
Normative rules and default conditions of a technology. Ex: TV=sitting down, eating, leisurely
The steady stream of programming through the set and the manner in which narrative, advertisements and promotions all intermixed
short promo for the network during commercials, preview or "next on" or show ads
sequences at the bottom promo or animated. Digital onscreen graphic
don't have to create content for mass appeal just people in their network
TV became a mass media and followed a "flow" model. Lack of choice and control from the audience, synchronized linear viewing and a broad and heterogeneous audience. Acts as a cultural industry that operates as a commercial enterprise seeking to maximize profits while producing programs that are important creative and cultural forums.
Fragmented audience among different channels and devices. Choice and control allows the audience to experience TV on their own terms, unsynchronized viewing, polarized content, narrowcasting. TV more as a niche media where TV communicates cultural beliefs to narrow groups than mass media
academic discipline and a critical study of games. It asks 2 questions: How do games work ? How do gamers respond?
Study how people strategically make decisions, more economic and poitical
Bartle Player types and motivations
Explore, socialize, achieve, griefer
Yee Types and Motivations
- Depends on the Game. Can have more than 1 motivation
- Three categories:
- Achievement: advancement, mechanics, competitions
- Social: socialization, relationships, teamwork
- Immerision: discovers, role-play, customize, escapism
Approach to game study. Mechanics and gameplay. games are simulation, focus on games as systems, games experience, rules: games world, game play, narrative has no effect on the game
Ex: Candy Crush don't care about the story
Games as a story telling. What types of stories can you tell through video games
- subcategory of Environmental storytelling draws upon previous experiences to evoke emotion
- Ex Disney Rides
- Redundancies are necessary in plot development (think episode recaps).
- Ex: cut scenes-mini movie in game
The world of the game can evoke a narrative experience through its design and effect on the player
Not pre-structured or pre-programmed, taking shape unfolds through the game play, yet they are not as unstructured, chaotic and frustrating as life itself
- Storytelling across multiple media. Each contributes to fans understanding of the story. Multiple entry points into the story. Immersion in story and its world. Game lie play
- Ex: Harry Potter, novels: fantastic beast, Quidditch book, Tales of Beedle the Bard, movies, merchandise, online community
Pink Games Movement
Games for girls with better values than stereotypical girl games. Intentions were good but ultimately created based off of generalizations
Deviance its socially constructed concept based on social norms and presumptions people make. People will express disapproval on them. How people are treated in these spaces. Deviance based on perception and stereotypes and ideas nothing the a person is doing. And people are deviant based on race an gender
Media that depicts intentional attempts by individuals to inflict harm on others.
Agression and Violence
agressions is behavior intended to harm another individual who is motivated to avoid that harm. Violence refers to extreme forms of aggression, such as physical assault and murder. All violence is aggression but not all aggression is violence
Person-stimuls-person what they do after exposure.
Bob doll –bandure
Try to measure aggression
- Over a period of time, don’t look at the immediate effects but over the period of time
- George Gerbners cultivation analysis-long term effects of consuming violent TV shows. What are the overall social effects?
- Found: the mean world syndrome more likely to be afraid of people, anxious, suspicious, crime policies , think of the world as a dangerous place
Methods that focus on contrasting and combining results from different studies, in the hope of identifying patterns among study results, sources of disagreement among those results or other interesting relationships that may come to light in the context of multiple studies
Bobo Doll Experiment
Albert Bandura studies the involvement of children watching the video of an adult's models hitting a bo-bo doll. Children who had seen the video of the adult acting aggressively toward the doll were more likely to mimc the behavior themselves. problems with the experiment: children often do what adults tell them, no distinction between play vs non play
- long term effects of consuming violent TV shows. What are the overall social effects,
- Found: the mean world syndrome more likely to be afraid of people, anxious, suspicious, crime policies, hink of the world as a dangerous
Mean World Syndrome
The media makes it seem that the world is dominated by violence. Heavy viewers are more likely to see the world as violent and dangerous. Watching TV heightened state of insecurity, exaggerate perceptions of risk and danger and a fear driven propensity for hard line political and social problems
- A condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests. a large amount of social concern over a threat that ends up being non-significant. often around young people and new technologies
- Ex Sexting
online realm and offline realm and one is more real the offline is more real. Argues that in our real lives we have rich face to face relationships and we are trading them off for FB, Twitter.
Social Shaping Theory
Society shapes the way that individual artifacts and systems are used and developed
- An over reliance or over confidence in technology as a benefactor of society
- Ex give a kid in Africa a laptop and he can educate himself. Technology can fix social problems
Technology drives the development of a society's social and cultural values
A more passive view of determination that argues that technology influences social and cultural values but other factors are involved
- tha factors that need to accompany a new technology as it develops
- Ex you need a stock of available knowledge and material competence of the age