Geography Unit 2

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  1. 4 facts that help us understand Canada's climate
    • Canada is a very large country
    • Different elevations produce different climate conditions
    • coastal regions have differing climates from inland area
    • Wind and pressure systems move weather from one part to another
  2. Climate
    long-term pattern of weather
  3. Weather
    day-to-day characteristics of atmospheric conditions
  4. Continental Climate
    • Large temperature range
    • Low amounts of precipitation (maximum in summer)
  5. Factors that affect continental climate
    • far from large bodies of water (lakes, ocean)
    • interior of large land masses
    • lack of moisture in main air masses
  6. Maritime Climate
    • Cool warm summers
    • Small temperature range
    • High precipitation total (max in winter)
  7. Factors influencing Maritime characteristics
    Near Large bodies of water
  8. Latitude
    • The further away from the equator you go, the colder it is
    • Why?
    • - the Sun's energy is most concentrated at the equator covering a smaller area so HOTTER
    • Distance from the equator has a huge impact on a region's average temperature
  9. Ocean Currents
    • water cools hot temperatures
    • ex. Labrador is cooler in the summers
    • water warms cold temperatures
    • ex. BC coast is milder than the expected for latitude.

    The temperature of an ocean current is determined according to the temperature of the surrounding water.

    • The temperature of the ocean affects the temperature air that passes over it.
    • ie. Warm Pacific current moderated BC's climate

    Cold Labrador + Warm Gulf Stream = FOG
  10. Wind
    Movement of surface air from high to low pressure
  11. Prevailing Winds
    Regions of high and low pressure belts in Canada, called the WESTERLIES

    • Move air masses from west to east.
    • Bring the temperature/moisture content associated with the air mass
  12. Air Mass
    Large volume of air that takes on the climactic conditions of the area where it formed
  13. Jet Stream
    Fast moving current of air high in the atmosphere circling the Arctic moving east
  14. Polar Front
    Boundary between cold and dry polar air, and warm and wet tropic air.

    • Summer - further north
    • Winter - further south
    • Produces front precipitation
  15. Frontal precipitation
    caused by the meeting of warm and cold air masses
  16. Relief Precicipation
    Mountain cause air to rise and thus precipiate
  17. Convectional precipitation
    Ground becomes so hot, air rises and form precipitation
  18. Precipitation
    In all forms of precipitation, moist air must rise, cool then precipitate
  19. Natural Vegetation
    plants that grow without any human intervention
  20. What defines a region's natural vegetation
    different climactic and soil conditions
  21. Categories of vegetation
    • Tundra
    • Forest
    • Grassland
  22. Transition Zone
    Areas where one vegetation region transitions to another. Some are so large, they are their own region (mixed forest)
  23. Tree Line
    Marks the northern boundary of the most tree growth
  24. Permafrost and Active Layer
    Permanently frozen ground and top meter that thaws in summer
  25. Sod-Mat
    Deep intertwined root system of grass. Absorbs and stores moisture and holds soil in place
  26. Old-growth forest
    Area of mature forest that has not been cut down
  27. Coniferous Trees
    • have long roots that extract nutrients from poor soil
    • sap acts as anti freeze that stop needles from freezing
    • waxy needles and thick bark keep moisture in during droughts
    • needles and branches are flexible and shed snow quickly to prevent damage
    • needles can photosynthesize beyond normal growing season
  28. Major changes to Canada's climate
    Arctic Ocean/Hudson to warm, but Atlantic region's will stay the same or even cool
  29. Kitchener's Climate region
  30. Why is Canada an important region to research on climate change?
    • Canada is the barometer for Climate Change (our temperatures have increased twice that of the global average)
    • Mackenzie Basin is one of three climate hotspots
  31. What is a Climate Graph
    • Average weather for a period of time of a specific place
    • Shows two pieces of info: precipitation and temperature
    • Red line for the AVERAGE monthly temperature (C)
    • Blue bar for the TOTAL precipitation (mm)
  32. How to Create a Climate Graph
    • Title of graph is the location
    • Bottom has months (letters) beginning with JAN
    • Temperature is along the left side of the graph
    • - In a curve
    • Precipitation is along the right side of the graph
    • -in bars
  33. Temperature Word Bank
    • + 30 = very hot
    • 20 to 29.9 = hot
    • 10 to 19.9 = warm
    • 0 to 9.9 = cool
    • - 10 to -.1 = cold
    • -10.1 and below = very cold
  34. Temperature Range Word Bank
    • less than 5 = small range
    • 5.1-15 = average range
    • 15.1 - 30 = large range
    • + 30 = very large range
  35. Precipitation Word Bank
    • less than 500 mm = dry
    • 501 to 1000 mm = average
    • more than 1000 mm = abundant
  36. Growing Season
    • Number of months will average temperature of 5.6 or greater
    • Less than 6 months will have difficult with agriculture
  37. Canada's Vast Size
    Canada has a total area close to 10 million km squared and fills almost all of NW hemisphere

    Thus, it's climate is affected with temperature and precipitation vary greatly

    Canada has 7 major climate regions
  38. Latitude
    Distance from equator

    Sun's energy is more concentrated on equator, so Canada's north is colder than the south
  39. Ocean Currents
    • Movement of water in oceans
    • Temperature of ocean currents in comparison to surrounding water; depends on place of origin

    Adds moisture, and affects temperature of air above it

    Only affects coastal areas, makes them milder and wetter.
  40. Winds and Air Masses
    • Wind moves air masses
    • Meeting of air masses = storms
    • Cold winters, warm summers
    • Bring wet and dry weather
  41. Polar Front Jet Stream
    Current of fast moving air that flows west to east circling Earth, separates cold dry polar air and warm moist air (south)

    Creates seasonal climates and frontal storms

    • Winter - It pushes colder, Arctic air to flow south
    • Summer - It allows warmer air from Gulf of mexico to warm Canada's interior
  42. Relief (elevation)
    • Differences in elevation of Earth's surface.
    • Temperatures decrease with higher elevation

    Mountains act as barriers to movement of air and influence precipitation. 

    • Rainforest along west side (windward)
    • Rain shadow along prairies (leeward side)
  43. Nearness to Water-bodies
    Oceans and large water bodies heat up and cool down more slowly than land masses

    Create Maritime and Continental Climates

    • Coastal Regions: 
    • - Small temp. range 
    • -wetter
    • - water moderates temperature

    • Lake Areas:
    • - precipitation throughout year

    • Areas farther from water (interior)
    • - larger temp ranges
    • - drier (more pptt in summer)
  44. Would you split the arctic sideways of length-wise
    • I would split the subarctic in half length wise, with a north side and a south side.
    • The reasoning for this is that fact that there is a large distance between the most northerly and most southerly areas of the subarctic. The distance is so much, that one area is significantly warmer than the other.

    The fact there the latitudes vary so greatly, makes the data collected for this reason inaccurate since they have different variables.

    Splitting it in an easterly and westerly fashion would also not work since the Hudson Bay is where the boundary would be drawn, but that large body of water still joins the two sides in similarities as it affects both sides.
  45. Distribution Patterns of Precipitation
    • Coastal: Wet Winter, Dry Summer
    • Continental: Dry Winter, Wet Summer
    • Lake Areas: Wet Winter, Wet Summer (Equal)
  46. Cordilleran Region
    Soils depend on slope, elevation, rainfall
  47. West Coast
    • Diversity of plants
    • Conifer Trees
    • Dense Vegetation
    • Heavy Rainfall and Mild Climate
    • Temperate Forests
    • Old-growth
    • Lush forests ( a lot of decaying plant matter)
    • Leaching
    • Douglas Fir, Sitka Spruce, Red Cedar
  48. Grassland
    • Drier
    • Short Grass (drought resistant plants, unsuitable for crops)
    • Long Grass (richest soils in Canada, grains and oil seeds)
    • Parkland (long grass and trees)
  49. Deciduous Forest
    • Deciduous Trees 
    • Rich, dark brown humus
    • Most fertile in Canada
    • Maple, beech, ash, black walnut
    • Most developed (urbanized)
  50. Mixed Forest
    • Deep grey, brown (mineral-rich soil)
    • Transition Zone
    • Agriculture
    • Coniferous (spruce, fir, pine, cedar, hemlock)
  51. Tundra Soils
    • Stunted Vegetation
    • Rocky
    • Permafrost
    • Above treeline
    • Waterlogged
    • Short growing season
    • Cold, dry
    • Limited Wildlife
    • Small shrubs, mosses, lichens
  52. Climate Change effect on Canada's north
    • Melting polar ice cap
    • rising sea levels.
    • Most of inner land is permafrost. Roads are cracking and sinking 
    • Melting permafrost alters landscape.
    • Tundra becomes swampy, shifting grounds
    • Waste trapped in land releases
  53. Effect on Canada's west
    • Islands are already becoming submerged
    • Parts of Vancouver, Victoria and Fraser Island

    Could drown tidal marshes, flood farmland and residential/industrial areas.

    Murky waters make water undrinkable.
  54. Effect on Canada's east
    • Glaciers melting cause less water to enter Grasslands
    • Semi-arid zones of Prairies more susceptible to drought
    • Grasslands will extend more north and replace boreal forests.
  55. Effect in Ontario/Quebec
    • low water levels are a concern
    • Economic affect hydro power to tourism
    • Wetlands could dry up
    • Water quality can go down
  56. Effect in Atlantic Provinces
    • Nova Scotia is already subsiding
    • Flooding and erosion at moderate level
    • Coastal bluffs are retreating

    Rising sea levels caused by decreasing/melting sea ice
  57. Economic and Cultural Affect in North
    • Melting seas can open up Northwest Passage for international trading
    • Increase access to oil/gas
    • Become expensive to maintain winter roads

    • Aboriginal communities affected
    • - range of animals deplete
    • - contamination of food sources
    • - availability of animals decrease
    • Communities may need to relocate
  58. Economic Affect in West
    • Forestry industry negatively affected
    • - more forest fires, drier seasons and insects
  59. Economic Affect in Prairies
    Drought affected farmers and cost agricultural industry a lot of money
  60. Economic and Cultural Affect in Ont/Que
    • More expensive shipping (harder to travel through St. Lawrence)
    • Hydro-electric and tourism by low water levels 

    • Heat wave becomes public health issue
    • - Leads to poorer air quality and smog
    • Winter cold spells
  61. Economic and Cultural Affect in Atlantic
    • Damage caused by storms have property damage and rehabilitation costs 
    • Fishing and tourism industry will suffer,
    • Oil industry will be easier to harvest

    • Destructive storms cause flooding, outages, and cause fatalities
    • Water supply goes murky and undrinkable
Card Set:
Geography Unit 2
2014-05-06 03:42:43
Climate Weather

Q Cards for geo test.
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