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Define cell membrane.
The perimeter of a cell that holds the contents of the cell together.
Contains a number of specialized structures that carry out much of the cell's work.
Define cell nucleus.
In most cells of higher animals, the control center of the cell and the part of the cell that contains the genetic material.
The primary molecules responsible for short-term energy storage in living organisms.
They also form the main structural components of plants.
A carbohydrate that cannot be broken down into simpler carbohydrates.
Monosaccharides are a simple carbohydrate.
Glucose is an example.
They rearrange in aqueous solutions to form ring structures.
Glucose is also an example of a hexose, a _______ sugar. The general names for monosaccharides have a prefix that depends on the number of _______ atoms followed by the suffix _______.
six-carbon; carbon; -ose
A carbohydrate that can be decomposed into two simpler carbohydrates.
Two monosaccharides can react, eliminating water to form a carbon-oxygen-carbon bond called a glycosidic linkage that connects the two rings.
Disaccharides are a simple carbohydrate.
Glucose and fructose link together to form sucrose, commonly known as table sugar.
Long, chain-like molecules composed of many monosaccharide units.
Polysaccharides are a complex carbohydrate.
Some common polysaccharides include starch and cellulose, both of which are composed of repeating glucose units.
Chemical components of the cell that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents.
- fatty acids
Lipids make up the containers that separate the interior of the cell from its external environment.
Lipids are used for long term energy storage and for insulation.
We all store extra calories from food as lipids, some of us more than others.
_______ in water makes lipids an ideal structural component of cell membranes.
Define fatty acids.
A class of lipids. Carboxylic acids with long hydrocarbon tails.
The general structure of a fatty acid is:
Where R represents a hydrocarbon chain containing 3 to 19 carbon atoms.
Fatty acids differ only in their R group.
- Common sources of fatty acids are:
- milk fat
- whale oil
- coconut oil
- beef fat
- olive oil
- peanut oil
- linseed oil
- corn oil
Fats and oils, triesters composed of glycerol linked to three fatty acids.
Triglycerides form by the reaction of glycerol with three fatty acids.
The bonds that join the glycerol to the fatty acids are called ester linkages.
If the fatty acids in a triglyceride are _______, the triglyceride is called a _______ and tends to be solid at room temperature.
saturated; saturated fat
Lard and many animal fats are examples of _______.
If the fatty acids in a triglyceride are _______, the triglyceride is called a _______ or a _______ and tends to be liquid at room temperature.
unsaturated; unsaturated fat; oil
Canola oil, olive oil, and most other vegetable oils are examples of _______.
A lipid, has the same basic structure as triglycerides, except that one of the fatty acid groups is replaced with a phosphate group.
Unlike a fatty acid, which is nonpolar, a phosphate group is polar and often has another polar group attached to it.
As a result, the phosphate group has a polar section and a nonpolar section.
Steroids are lipids that contain the following four-ring structure.
Some common steroids include cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen.
They are polymers of amino acids.
Amino acids are molecules containing an amine group
, a carboxylic acid group
, and an R group
The general structure of an amino acid:
- H O
- | ||
- Amine group
- Carboxylic acid group
- R group
Describe the images of primary, secondary and tertiary structures of a protein.
A sequence of three nucleotides with their associated bases. Each codon codes for one amino acid.
DNA is a polymer of _______. Each _______ has three parts: a _______ group, a _______ group, and a _______.
nucleotides; sugar; phosphate; base;
Nucleotides are formed by _______ linkages.
Individual links in the nucleic acid chain.
Nucleotides are composed of a sugar group, a phosphate group, and a base.
Like proteins, nucleic acids are _______.
Every nucleotide in DNA has the same phosphate and sugar, but can have one of _______ different bases.
What are the four different DNA bases? What are they for RNA?
- (A) adenine
- (C) cytosine
- (G) guanine
- (T) thymine
Peptide linkages are examples of _______.
A sequence of codons within a DNA molecule that codes for a single protein.
Because proteins vary in size from 50 to thousands of amino acids, genes vary in length from 50 to thousands of codons.
A macromolecule of DNA.
Genes are contained in structures called chromosomes--46 in humans--within the nuclei of cells.
Describe the organization of genetic material.
Describe the process of DNA replication.