FunctionalGroups

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Author:
Yami
ID:
273407
Filename:
FunctionalGroups
Updated:
2014-05-06 04:26:18
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  1. Alcohols
    • - Choose the longest C-chain containing Oh group
    • - Number the chain to give the OH-bearing carbon the lower number
    • - Change the ending of the name to 'ol'
    • - Alcohols are formed via the hydration of a double bond

    - IE: _Double bond compound_ +H20 = alcohol
  2. Ethers
    • - General formula: R-O-R
    • - Name the simpler R group as an "alkoxy" derivative on the longer R group
    • - Alcohols & ethers are isomers
    • - Ethers are formed from an alcohol
    • - IE: CH3-CH2-OH --Strong Base/2.R-Cl = CH3-CH2-OR
  3. Aldehydes
    • - General Formula: R-CHO (R is a carbon chain)
    • - Find the longest chain containing the carbonyl group
    • - carbonyl bearing carbon is labelled C-1
    • - Change the ending of the name to 'al'
    • - Maximum 2 aldehydes in a chain
    • - Aldehydes can be fromed via the oxidation of a primary alcohol (akin to a dehyrogenation)
  4. Ketones
    • - General Formula: R-C^=O^-R
    • (^ are arrows pointing up)
    • - Find the longest C-chain containing the carbonyl group
    • - Number it to give the carbonyl carbon numbering priority
    • - Change the 'e' ending to 'one"
    • - Keytones are formed via the oxidation of a secondary alcohol
  5. Carboxylic acids
    • - General formula: R-COOH (R is a carbon chain)
    • - Find the longest chain containing the carboxy group
    • - Carboxy bearing carbon is labelled C-#1
    • - Change the ending of the name to '-oic acid"
    • - Acids can be formed by the oxidation of a primary alcohol
  6. Esters
    • - General Formula: R-COOR (R and R' are carbon chains)
    • - Find the longest chain containing the ester group
    • - Change the ending to '-oate'
    • - Place the name of R' in front of the root of the name
    • - Always name the group with the oxygen first, and the functional group is in the suffix
    • - Esters are formed via the reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol using an acid catalyst
  7. Amides
    • - General formula: R-CONR2 (R can be a H or a carbon chain)
    • - Find the longest chain containing the amide group
    • - The amide bearing C is labelled C-#1
    • - Change the ending 'e' ending to '-amide'
    • - Amides can be obtained via the reaction between an ester and ammonia or an amine
  8. Amines
    • - General Formula: R3N (At least 1 R is a carbon chain)
    • - Name all the R groups in alphabetical order, followed by '-amine'; all in one word

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