Geog 111: Part 4
Card Set Information
Geog 111: Part 4
New School and Old School Flower
: anything can come in, naked seed, gymnosperms: Pines, Gingkos, fir
: specialized pollinator that can fit in, evolved recently with insects, angiosperms
-Inside out flower
Types of Fruits
-opens to spread seeds
-fruit splits open at maturity
: Bee pollination,
-Butterflies (White and yellow flower [Lawdig pad]),
-Moth (white flower)
Humming birds- red flowers
-Bats in tropics- Huge white flowers.
-no opening to spread seeds
-seeds disperse themselves
-wind dispersal for seeds
-like cotton and dandlion
-seed dispersal through water
-seed dispersal by animals, usually digestion and poop is involved
-dispersed by humans (WE PLANT STUFF!!!)
seed-only will open in fire, fire dependant
Why are urban forests important?
Trees clean water, air, and noise pollution
Was Los Angeles a forest?
-No, used to be shrublands/grasslands, when europeans came 150,000 years ago brought cultural things (trees) with them planted them here.
What benefits do trees have for LA?
: 80% of tree's value
-oxygen/clean air filtration, filters dust
-noise barrier, filters/purifies water
What was the Million Tree Project?
Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa said in first day in office he wanted to plant 1 million trees in Los Angeles.-lowers energy bills, higher property values, cleaner air/water, social justice, etc.
Costs of trees in LA
Density of trees in LA
1 Hectare=100 tree individuals
80% private land, 20% public land
-Urban forests, grasslands, coastal sage, chaparral (hard brush), oak woodland, Riparian area with sycamores, non native grasses
Annuals turn brown in the fall and winter, brown grasses are non-native
What are wildflowers and are they still in LA?
Yes, still in LA
-Wildflowers are uncultivated variety of flowers or a flower growing freely with no human intervention
How were Oaks used by Native Indians?
-staple in their diet
What is vegetation and what is flora?
: list of species
: the plants in nature
History of California
37 million years ago we had a tropical area, we had lots of coffee trees, palm trees (tropical) but then there was a sudden shift in climate- started to get colder
Neotropical Tertiary Geoflora, Date and Relicts
palms, coffee, laurel
Separated areas of floral assemblage- got drier
: hemlock, spruce, pinnacae Maple, alder, elm
Ice age impacts
Forest is now at the bottom of the mountain
Impacts of Sierra Nevada uplift
Change in climate and orographic processes
-Mountains in the coats, have rain shadows
- rains on the front of the mountain but dry behind it
What is a Riparian Forest?
Forested area of land adjacent to a body of water such as a river, stream, pond, lake, estuary, canal, reservoir...etc
Precipitation generated by a forced upward movement of air upon encountering a physiographic upland (either horizontal or vertical)
Where are the five Mediterranean Regions?
1. Central Chile
2. SW Australia
5. South Africa
Flora of Valley and Foothills
-Aesculus californica (California Buckeye)
-Juglans californica (Black Walnut)
-Quercus arigolia (Coast Live Oak)
-Quercus engelmannii (Engelman Oak)
Oaks (Quercus) Ecology
-20 Oak speicies
-Half are endemic
95% gone because it occurs along rivers, we’ve replaced them with agriculture (rice)
Shrub type, chaparral and fire
-evidence that this has been gone for 5 million years
-Adenostoma fasciculatum (Chamise)
-Arctostaphylos (Heartlead Manzanita)
North Coastal Forests: Where, Why, Tree Species
- climate is wet
- 96% cut down
- Douglas fir
Closed-cone Pine Forests
-coned dont open unless theres a fire
- monterey pine
- how LA looked during ice age
-Pinus ponderosa – most common tree in this area
-Fire- burned all the time before
-Yellow pine forest, lodgepole-Red Fir Forest
Subalpine forest – right along the top, near the tree line.
• Ancient brittle conePinus longevia – oldest trees, contain history of rainfall and temp in California
• Montane forest below that – ponderosa
• Chaparel forest below that
-Pinus longevia (Bristlecone pine)
-rain shadow side of mountain
-Pines – single leaf pine, pinus monophyle
-Low diversity – only two or three types of leaves
-Pine nuts here
Joshua Tree Woodlands
-Occur on rain shadow side of California, high desert
-Pollinated by one month- the yucca moth, evolved to the plant
Sequoia Sempervirens (CA Redwoods)
-over 100m tall
-adapted to fire