PHRD5985 Pharmacotherapy Lecture 17 - Ophthalmic Conditions

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PHRD5985 Pharmacotherapy Lecture 17 - Ophthalmic Conditions
2014-05-15 08:17:44
Ophthalmic Conditions

Ophthalmic Conditions
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  1. innermost layer of tear film
    mucous layer
  2. main fcn of mucous layer
    lubricate ocular surface
  3. main/middle portion of tear film on top of mucous layer
    aqueous layer
  4. main fcns of aqueous layer
    • supply oxygen/electrolytes to ocular surface
    • antibacterial defense
  5. what produces the aqueous layer of the tear film
    lacrimal glands
  6. outermost layer of the tear film
    lipid layer
  7. main fcn of lipid layer
    slow tear evaporation
  8. produces the lipid layer of tear film
    Meibomian glands
  9. causes of dry eye
    • dec tear production due to lacrimal gland destruction/dysfunction or goblet cells;┬ámedications
    • inc evaporative loss
  10. pharmacologic tx options for dry eye
    • eval meds
    • tear supplementation
    • topical cyclosporine
    • punctal occlusion
  11. MOA of topical cyclosporine (Restasis)
    immunosuppressive agent
  12. main adverse effect of cyclosporine drops
  13. onset of action of topical cyclosporine
    4-6 weeks
  14. tx w/ abx eye drops shortens clinical course of bacterial conjunctivitis if given before day ___ .
  15. steroid eye drops assoc'd w/ incidence of these SE's
    • inc IOP
    • rebound
    • cataracts
    • thinned/ruptured sclera
  16. abx toxic to corneal epithelium
    aminoglycosides (gentaMYCIN, tobraMYCIN)
  17. 1st line abx tx in children for bacterial conjunctivitis
    erythromycin ointment
  18. 1st line tx for bacterial conjunctivitis (covers gram neg and pos)
    polymyxin-trimethoprim drops
  19. good abx choice for tx of bacterial conjunctivitis in non-compliant pts
    azithromycin (more viscous, less frequent dosing)
  20. 1st line abx for tx of bacterial conjunctivitis in contact lens wearers & corneal ulcers
    fluoroquinolone drops
  21. population w/ high incidence of Pseudomonas bacterial conjunctivitis
    contact lens wearers
  22. why fluoroquinolones are 2nd line tx of bacterial conjunctivitis
    can develop resistance
  23. 1st line tx for allergic conjunctivitis
    ketotifen (AH/mast cell stabilizer)
  24. most common bacterial cause of a stye (hordeolum)
    S. aureus
  25. distinguishing sx of a stye
    • red, swollen nodule on lid line
    • ***painful
  26. important aspect of tx of a stye
    lid hygiene (OTC lid scrubs)
  27. cause of chalazion
    granulomatous inflammation & subsequent clogging of Meibomian glands
  28. distinguishing sx of chalazion
    • firm, mobile nodular bump on eyelid
    • non-tender
    • not painful
  29. when to use a cold compress
    viral and allergic conjunctivitis
  30. cause of blepharitis
    debris cause clogging of Meibomian glands
  31. distinguishing sx of blepharitis
    • red, scaly, thickened eyelids
    • crusting of eyelashes