Cognition Chapter 7

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  1. Metacognition
    Thinking about thinking
  2. Thinking (cognition)
    Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand and/or communicate information to others
  3. Mental Images
    Mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picture-like quality
  4. Concepts
    Ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities
  5. Problem Solving
    Process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways
  6. Trail and error (mechanical solution)
    One possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found
  7. Algorithms
    Very specific, step by step procedures for solving certain types of problems
  8. Insight
    Sudden perception of a solution to a problem
  9. Heuristic
    An educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem; also known as a "rule of thumb"
  10. Representative heuristic
    Assumption that any object (or person) sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category
  11. Availability heuristics
    Estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is to think of related examples
  12. Functional fixedness
    A block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions
  13. Mental set
    The tendency to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past
  14. Confirmation bias
    The tendency to search for evidence that fits one's beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs
  15. Attention
    The process that, at a given moment, enhances some information and inhibits other information
  16. Multitasking
  17. Language
    A system for combining symbols (such as words) so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating
  18. Linguistic relativity hypothesis
    Thought processes and concepts are controlled by language
  19. Cognitive universalism
    Concepts are universal and influence the development of language
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Cognition Chapter 7
2014-05-06 16:49:30

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