Final Exam Cycads

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  1. Structure
    Stems: can tell the age from it; appears very woody due to the leaf bases that remain there when the plant dies; organisms can live within the spaces between the leaf spaces; very short and tulip-like; rough

    Leaves are all compound; pinnate—leaflets arranged like feathers; palmate—all of the leaflets come out of one tip; leaves have thick cuticles and stomata; some show circinate vernation

    Leaflets: are very tough and leathery; lot of fibers

    Roots: corraloid (extend outward from the tree) and fleshy, which are the main roots; the roots have cyanobacteria in them, which fix nitrogen

    Heterosporous Height: can be tall or short

    Seed: brightly colored
  2. Location
    Tropical and subtropical

    Only one native to the US: Zamia integrifolia
  3. Unisexual or Bisexual
    has separate male and female plants, but both produce conesmale cones are slender and produce microsporangia on the underside

    female cones appear thicker and tougher in texture; produce seeds

    Exception to this is Cycas revolute (Sago palm)): seeds not made in female strobili, but instead on leaves called megasporophylls, which can be around the vegetative structures or in the center of them
  4. Reached Peak; Ancestral Origin
    170 million years ago

    Probably came from progymnosperms, which weren’t seed producers, or seed ferns
  5. Adaptations
    Thick cuticle and stomata to prevent water loss

    Grew when the climate was cooler

    Uses:Eaten, but they have toxins (carcinogens and mutagens)
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Final Exam Cycads
2014-05-06 18:12:16
Plant Kingdom
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