physics final part 2

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  1. age of the earth
    4.6 billion years
  2. asteroid belt
    collection of asteroids located between mars and Jupiter's atmosphere
  3. Kuiper Belt
    • Second source of small, icy bodies in the outer solar system
    • ~30 to 100 AU from the Sun
    • few of it's objects can be seen from the Hubble telescope
  4. Oort cloud
    • many believe comets originate here
    • A spherical cloud of several trillion icy bodies, ~10,000 to 100,000 AU from the
    • Sun.
  5. Galilean Moons
    • orbit around Jupiter
    • Lo, Europa, Ganymede and Castillo
    • all have different and diverse geologies
  6. Protoplanets
    • made of planetismals
    • most simple form of planet creation
  7. condensation
    rock and metal reach a temperature where mass is formed
  8. accretion
    creation of planets through impact of smaller objects
  9. outgassing
    creation of a secondary atmosphere
  10. differentiation
    heavier elements sink to the center as rocks melt
  11. Mercury
    • similar to earths moon
    • small and covered in craters
    • extreme night to day temperatures
    • rotation is altered by the suns tidal forces
  12. Venus
    • rotates clockwise
    • atmosphere made of 4 cloud layers
    • extremely hot
    • volcanic activity
    • lots of craters
  13. Earth
    • mantle, core and crust
    • tectonic plates
    • 2/3rds water
    • mountains erode fast due to water
    • pangea
    • green house effect
  14. Mars
    • 1/2 earths diameter
    • thin atmosphere
    • seasons similar to earth's
    • crust not sectioned into tectonic plates
    • volcanic activity
    • dust clouds
    • evidence of water
  15. Jupiter
    • largest and most massive planet
    • contains 3/4 of all planetary matter
    • multi-colored belts
    • made of hydrogen and helium
    • powerful Aurorae
    • strong magnetic field
    • no surface
    • dark reddish rings
  16. Saturn
    • 1/3 mass of Jupiter
    • could float inn water
    • made of hydrogen and helium
    • strong winds
    • 3 rings composed of ice particles
  17. Uranus
    • 1/3 diameter of Jupiter
    • no surface
    • blue due to methane
    • rings composed of dark material
  18. Neptune
    • blue-green from methane
    • 4 times earth's diameter
    • white clouds with ice crystals
    • 2 moons
  19. Extrasolar planets
    • planets orbiting around other stars
    • Dustdisks around newly-born stars suggest that there are planetary systems around other stars
  20. Craters
    impacts on a planets surface
  21. Meteoroids
    • small body in space
    • usually associated with an orbit of a comet
  22. Comet
    • fluffy material with lots of empty space
    • originate from Oort cloud
  23. Asteroids
    Small, irregular objects, mostly in the apparent gap between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
  24. m-type asteroid
    Brighter, less reddish asteroids, probably made out of metal rich materials; probably iron cores of fragmented asteroids
  25. C-type asteroids
    Dark asteroids, probably made out of carbon-rich materials (carbonaceous chondrites); common in the outer asteroid belt
  26. S-type asteroids
    Brighter, redder asteroids, probably made out of rocky materials; very common in the inner asteroid belt
  27. Planetismals
    collide to from planets
  28. Radioactive Decay
    creates and destroys matter
  29. s-waves
    travels in the earth and is second wave to reach seismograph
  30. p-waves
    • wave that travels through the earth
    • 1st to be detected
  31. magnetic field
    magnetic influence or current surrounding objects
  32. plate tectonics
    • separated pieces of crust on the surface of some planets
    • plate movement towards each other= mountains, volcanos and earthquakes
    • plate movement away= molten lava & volcani activity
  33. greenhouse effect
    • heat trapped in the atmosphere due to the reheating of the surface
    • human activity and release of CO2 increases greenhouse effect
  34. tidal heating
    • occurs from tidal friction
    • orbital and rotational energy dissipated
  35. Maria
    basins flooded by lava flow
  36. Breccias
    fragments of different types of rock cemented together
  37. highlands
    areas of high altitude in volcanic activity
  38. lobate scarps
    • scarps that intersect preexisting scarps and craters
    • found on mercury's surface
  39. Roche Limit
    distance in which a celestial body will hold itself together with it's own gravity
  40. Sublimation
    when an element goes from solid to gas without becoming a liquid
  41. gas tail
    • ionized gas pushed away from the comet by the solar wind, pointing straight away from
    • the Sun
  42. Dust tail
    • dust set free from vaporizing ice in the comet; carried away from the comet by the
    • sun’s radiation pressure, lagging behind the comet along its trajectory
  43. chondrites
    unmodified stony meteorites
  44. chondrules
    round grains found in chondrites
  45. coma
    nebulous envelope found around the nucleus of a comet
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physics final part 2
2014-05-06 18:45:38
physucs universe dan

physics of the universe part 2 cards
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