Hist120-ExamIII

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lazvertiigo
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Hist120-ExamIII
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2014-05-06 16:37:15
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study for exam III
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  1. -Act banning trade with Europe; a ban of all American vessels sailing for foreign ports
    -devastated the economies of American port cities
    -does not solve the crisis
    -economic health of US required freedom of trade which no foreign government had a right to interfere
    Embargo Act
  2. * Pirates seizing ships and enslaving Americans; forcing ransom payments
    * American Response: Naval war v. Tripoli
    Barbary Pirates
  3. * Chief who refused to sign the Treaty of Greenville in 1795
    * He traversed the Mississippi Valley seeking to revive Neolin's pan-Indian alliance of 1760s (Redsticks)
    * proclaimed: Indians must recognize they are a single people and unite in claiming "a common and equal right in the land"
    * called for attacks on American frontier
    * followers gathered at Prophetstown, Indiana
    * Commissioned a general in British army
    * Killed by Richard M. Johnson (claimed)
    Tecumseh
  4. * Naval officer from the war of 1812, Commodore
    * wins battle against the British/Canadian on Lake Eerie in 1813
    Oliver Hazard Perry
  5. * A famous general from the War of 1812; Killed Tecumseh
    * Grovernor from Indiana; ultimately will become President
    * He's responsible for fighting the Indians
    * Famous battle: his forces destroyed Prophetstown in the Battle of Tippecanoe
    * Rumored to be a poor man born in a log cabin (farse rumor)
    William Henry Harrison
  6. * the entrance to the harbor of Baltimore that withstood a British bombardment
    * the occasion when Francis Scott Key composed "The Star-Spangled Banner"
    Fort McHenry
  7. * the war's greatest American victory; fighting off a British invasion in January 1815 
    * Engineered by Jackson: recruited the city's free men of color into his forces, "sons of freedom", promising same pay and land bounties as white recruits
    Battle of New Orleans
  8. * The gathering of New England Federalists to voice their party's long-standing grievances
    * called for repealing the 3/5's Clause and 2/3's vote of Congress for the admission of new states, declaration of war and laws restricting trade
    * contrary to myth, it did not call for secession or disunion although it reaffirmed the right of a state to "interpose" its authority if the federal government violated the Constitution
    Hartford Convention
  9. Describe the causes of the War of 1812.
    • 1793-1815
    • American ships were harassed by British and France
    • Britain and France were at War
    • U.S. was caught in the middle
    • British interfere with U.S. Shipping

    • Embargo Act
    • Act banning trade with Europe; a ban of all American vessels sailing for foreign ports
    • devastated the economies of American port cities
    • does not solve the crisis
    • economic health of US required freedom of trade which no foreign government had a right to interfere

    • Causes of the War
    • 1. Interfere with US ships
    • 2. Impressment of US sailors
    • 3. British appear to be supporting Indians by arming them; Brits wanted to create an Indian buffer between Canada and US.
  10. * construct established due to Embargo of 1807 and War of 1812 utilizing power looms for weaving cotton cloth
    * employed "mill girls" as temporary labor force; young unmarried women from Yankee farm families
    * developed by Boston Associates
    * expanded to create a factory town solely for modern textile factories * later, steam power would improve the production of other goods * known as "American System of Manufacturers"
    * relied on the mass production of interchangeable parts that could be rapidly assembled into standardized finished products
    * perfected in the manufacture of clocks by Eli Terry
    * produced the temporary labor force, hourly wages
    The Factory System-Slater and Lowell
  11. * a plot by slaves in Virginia to gain their freedom; inspired by the Revolution's ideals
    * organized by a Richmond blacksmith, and his brother Solomon (blacksmith), and Martin (slave preacher)
    * goal was to march on the city, kill white inhabitants and hold the rest until their demand for the abolition of slavery was met
    * expected some poor-white people to side with the slaves
    * plot was discovered and leaders arrested
    Gabriel’s Rebellion
  12. * a slave preacher and religious mystic in Southampton County, Virginia who believed God chose him to led an uprising
    * August 22, 1831: he and handful of followers marched from farm to farm assaulting white inhabitants, primarily women and children
    * militia put down uprising; 80 slaves had joined, 60 whites killed
    * last large-scale rebellion in southern history
    * aftermath: whites feared insubordination by slaves, created new laws prohibiting slaves or free blacks from preaching, owning firearms, and learning how to read.
    Nat Turner
  13. * Popular religious revivals that swept over the country
    * added religious underpinning to the celebration of personal self-improvement, self-reliance, and self-determination
    * organized due to low levels of church attendance
    * Reverend Charles Grandison Finney held revival meetings
    * anti-slavery
    * women's rights
    * anti-Calvinists: not predestined fate
    * emphasized free will/choice
    * part of a period of "Millennialism" enthusiasm: second coming of Christ/end of times
    The Second Great Awakening
  14. * wrote Walden (about simplicity) during isolation in some cabin out in the woods
    * wrote about civil disobedience
    ***** Unhappy with Mexican War; does not pay taxes, goes to jail
    Henry David Thoreau
  15. * published The Liberator, weekly journal in Boston
    ***** a voice for abolitionism
    * abolitionist motivated by higher standard of Christianity
    * called for the North to abrogate the Constitution and dissolve the Union to end slavery
    William Lloyd Garrison
  16. * runaway slave who helped achieve the Person Liberty Act
    * one amongst many former slaves who published accounts of their lives in bondage
    Frederick Douglass
  17. * a blueprint for government-promoted economic development by President James Madison
    * coined by Henry Clay
    * plan had 3 pillars: a new national bank, a tariff on imported manufactured goods to protect American Industry, and federal financing of improved roads and canals
    The American System
  18. * Congressman from Kentucky; ends up Secretary of State
    * He can decide who will become new president if no running candidates achieve 50% of electoral votes
    *founder of the Whig Party
    Henry Clay
  19. * party united behind the American System called National Republicans
    * founded by Henry Clay
    * believed that via protected tariff, a national bank, and aid to internal improvements, the federal government could guide economic development
    * strongest in the Northeast
    * wealthy members tended to view society as a hierarchy of social classes
    * supported government's interference in private life
    Whig Party
  20. * era where only one party was running for elections: Democratic-Republicans
    * people thought that because only one party existed then democracy had prevailed
    Era of Good Feelings
  21. * A senator from New York who oversaw the task of organizing for the election of 1828
    * represented the new political era of political parties in the US
    * son of a tavern keeper, but also talented party manager
    * believed political parties were necessary and desirable element of political life
    ***** party competition provided a check on those in power
    * offered voters a choice in elections
    * Chosen by Jackson as successor
    Martin Van Buren
  22. * Jackson introduced this system which outlined the principle of rotation in office into national government, making loyalty to the party the main qualification for jobs like postmaster and customs official
    The Spoils System
  23. * treaty that Spain signed for the acquisition of Florida to the US; 5 million dollars.
    Adams-Onis Treaty
  24. * A passage from President James Monroe's annual message that outlined:
    ***** Western Hemisphere was no longer open to European colonization
    * US would remain uninvolved in the wars of Europe
    * Also warned European powers not to interfere with the newly independent states of Latin America
    Monroe Doctrine
  25. * concerned about marriage; she was not really divorced
    * the improperly filed divorce caused scandal when Jackson ran for President
    Rachel Jackson
  26. * Negotiated Treaty to acquire Florida from Spain
    * Supporter of the American System
    * Authored Monroe Doctrine; was Monroe's Secretary of State
    * He was the opponent of Andrew Jackson in 1828 campaign
    * abolitionist who helped Amistad slaves return to Africa and gain freedom
    * Son of John Adams
    * 6th President of US
    John Quincy Adams
  27. * the trek of Cherokees when Jackson forces their removal  from Georgia to Oklahoma
    Trail of Tears
  28. * Tarrif of 1828 which raised taxes on imported manufactured goods made of wool, raw materials (iron) that brought opposition in the south
    * South Carolina calls the Tariff of 1828 as this...
    Tariff of Abominations
  29. * Idea that states can reject Federal Law
    * Began with Tariff of 1828; tariff will help manufactures in the North
    * South Carolina threatened to reject federal laws on tariffs within the state
    Nullification
  30. * leading theorist of nullification
    * Senator of South Carolina
    * powerful defender of souther sectionalism and slavery
    * elected vice president in 1828; drafted Exposition and Protest that justified nullification
    John C. Calhoun
  31. * Jackson's friend, Secretary of War, marries a dubious woman, Peggy Eaton
    * Peggy Eaton was the daughter of a Washington tavern keeper, a woman of "easy virtue"
    * woman protest against Peggy, especially Clahoun's wife, Foride
    * people resigned if you were mean or disliked Peggy from Washington D.C.
    Petticoat War
  32. * campaign of 1840 for William Henry Harrison
    * represented as the champion of the common man
    * Harrison claimed that he was born in a cabin, and brought up poor
    * Harrison was very wealthy during his campaign
    “Log Cabin Campaign”
  33. What was the purpose of the Missouri Compromise? What were the specific compromises?
    • Missouri Compromise of 1820
    • * James Tallmadge moved that introduction of further slaves be prohibited and that children of those already in this state to be freed at age twenty-five
    • * Can Missouri enter the union as a slave state?
    • * political power: sections are evenly balanced
    • * Senator Jesse Thomas of Illinois proposed: ***** Missouri would be authorized without Tallmadge Restrictions
    • * Maine would be admitted to the Union to maintain sectional balance between free and slave states
    • * Slavery would be prohibited in all remaining territory withing the Louisiana Purchase north of latitude 36degrees309
  34. Explain why Andrew Jackson did not win the presidential election of 1824?  What was the Corrupt Bargain?
    • * Jackson won the popular vote and most of the electoral vote, but you have to get half of the electoral vote to win
    • * at least 50% of the electoral vote is required to keep the new president in good standing with the Henry Clay
    • * Congressman from Kentucky
    • * He can decide who will become new president if no running candidates achieve 50% of electoral votes.
    • * votes for Quincy Adams

    • The Corrupt Bargain
    • * Because Clay voted for Quincy Adams, Adams appointed Clay Secretary of State after his victory for presidency
    • * people saw this as a corrupt deal that prevented Jackson from becoming president
  35. Jackson was sometimes called “King Andrew.” Who called him this and why? Give specific examples.
    • * Whigs called Jackson "King Andrew"; especially Henry Clay
    • * Jackson ignores Supreme Court decision over Cherokee and Georgia
    • * or nullification: threatening to invade South Carolina
    • * Jackson would veto more than anyone else
    • * Suspicious of the Bank System, tries to establish charters for the bank; removes money from federal bank and moves it to local banks
  36. Explain the events of the Cherokee Indian Removal.
    • * Cherokees control a large portion of Georgia-Reservation deeded by Federal Government
    • * Georgia does not respect Indian rights; a problem of the states
    • * Georgia does not understand the sovereign state of Cherokees within the state of Georgia
    • * Georgia questions if the Federal Government can establish the Reservation within the state
    • * Georgians encroach and find gold within the Reservation
    • * Cherokees go to the Supreme Court and win
    • * Jackson does not enforce verdict: he calls for John Marshall (Supreme Court Justice) to enforce it
    • * Jackson believes removal is the only solution
  37. * 1840s Belief that God intended the American nation to reach all the way to the Pacific Ocean
    * Slavery was the center stage because of nation's territorial expansion
    * large migration of settlers moved further west
    Manifest Destiny
  38. * the motto that requested to raise the Oregon border
    * Canada claims Oregon territory should be theirs
    * American wanted control of all of Oregon
    “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight”
  39. * a mission compound in San Antonio, Texas where the famous battle between Mexican Army and rebels occurred
    * Rebel militia included Americans and Tejanos in 1836
    The Alamo
  40. * Bear hunter from Tennessee elected to Congress
    * killed at the Alamo after moving to Texas
    David Crockett
  41. * General who led the US army during the Mexican-American War
    * Wins battle at Buena Vista
    Zachary Taylor
  42. * President during the Mexican-American War who pursued the Manifest Destiny
    * Dispatches emissary to Mexico to purchase California and New Mexico Region
    * Claims Mexicans shed American blood on American soil
    * Declares war against Mexico
    James K Polk
  43. * General at Baltimore who marched from Kansas to California
    * responsible for claiming California for U.S.
    Stephen Kearny
  44. * called "old fuzz and feathers"
    * General who invades Mexico City
    Winfield Scott
  45. Proposal to prohibit slavery in any land acquired in the Mexican War, but southern senators, led byJohn C. Calhoun of South Carolina, defeated the measure in1846 and 1847.
    Wilmot Proviso
  46. * influential novel about runaway slaves during the time of the Fugitive Slave Act
    * banned in the South
    Uncle Tom’s Cabin
  47. * federal courts to aid slave owners retrieve runaway slaves
    * the act makes aiding slave runaways a crime
    Fugitive Slave Act
  48. a clandestine system of routes and safehouses through which slaves were led to freedom in the North
    The “Underground Railroad”
  49. William Walker
    • * military adventurer who led a series of "filibustering" expeditions
    • * led a band of men who "captured" Baja California
    • * established a himself as ruler of Nicaragua; Recognized by U.S. as president
    • * linked to spread of slavery in the South
  50. * Treaty that gave the US California and New Mexico territory
    * Signed after Mexico City invasion by Americans
    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  51. Describe the origins of the Texas independence movement.  Describe the major events.
    • * Mexican Government accepted Moses Austin's offer to colonize Texas at $0.12 per acre
    • * Mexico needs people and are willing to recruit Americans
    • ***** swear loyalty oath (to a republic)
    • * learn Spanish
    • * Become Catholic
    • * American Population exceeds Mexicans (Tejanos)
    • * American's also brought slavery and economic boom; Mexico bans slavery
    • * Mexico's new ruler, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, sent army in 1835 to impose central authority (dictatorship)
    • * rebels formed a provisional government and called for Texan independence
    • * 1836, Santa Anna's army stormed the Alamo killing 187 American and Tejano defenders
    • * Forces under Sam Houston routed Santa Anna's army at the Battle of San Jacinto and forced Santa Ana to recognize Texan independence
  52. Explain the causes of the Mexican-American War. Who were some of the important figures in the war and what roles did they play?  What was the final settlement?
    • * Annexation of Texas: Texas becomes a State of the United States; US accepts Texas (1847); Mexico considers it an act of war
    • * Manifest Destiny: US is committed to move westward, but initiates a border dispute between the two nations
    • * James K. Polk is President and committed to Manifest Destiny
    • * Polk sends emissary to Mexico offering purchase of California; Mexico refused to negotiate
    • * 1846: Polk planned for military action
  53. What problem was the Compromise of 1850 meant to address? Describe the primary compromises.
    • * No slavery in California; could have slavery in remainder of New Mexico
    • * Fugitive Slave Act: federal court to aid slave owners retrieve their slave runaways; became a crime to aid runaway slaves

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