Exercise 42 - Reproductive Anatomy

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lonelygirl
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273488
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Exercise 42 - Reproductive Anatomy
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2014-05-16 02:28:09
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StudyGuide LabPractical
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Biology 103A
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  1. labia major
    • FUNCTION: enclose and protect the other external reproductive organs; they correspond to the scrotum of the male
    • SECRETION: sweat and oil-secreting glands
  2. labia minor
    • FUNCTION: enclose recess called vestibule, which contains the external opening of urethra (anteriorly) and vagina (posteriorly).
    • SECRETION: antibacterial substances as a defence against infection
  3. vagina
    • Thin-walled tube extending from the cervix to the body exterior; often called the birth canal
    • FUNCTION: serve as a copulatory organ and birth canal and extends for approximately 10 cm (4 inches) from the vestibule to the uterus superiorly
    • SECRETION: allow for passage of the menstrual flow
  4. urethra
    • Canal through which urine passes from the bladder to outside the body
    • FUNCTION: works as a tube connecting the urinary bladder to the genitals
    • SECRETION: urine from urinary bladder
  5. anus
    • Distal end of digestive tract or outlet of rectum
    • FUNCTION: detect rectal content, the last part of the digestive tract
    • SECRETION: solid or liquid waste products
  6. rectum
    • FUNCTION: connects the colon to the anus and receives stool from the colon
    • SECRETION: release rectal contents to anus
  7. myometrium
    • Thick uterine musculature
    • FUNCTION: contract during childbirth
    • SECRETION: the pituitary gland secretes oxytoxin to target myometrium causing to contract during childbirth to expel the baby from mother's body
  8. endometrium
    • the thick mucosal lining of the uterus
    • FUNCTION: prevent adhesions between the opposed walls of the myometrium
    • SECRETION: cholesterol, steroids, and various nutrients, including iron and fat-soluble vitamins
  9. uterus
    • Hollow, thick-walled organ
    • FUNCTION: receives, retains, and nourishes fertilized egg; site where embryo/fetus develops.
    • SECRETION: rich glycogen
  10. cervix
    • lower outlet of the uterus extending into the vagina
    • FUNCTION: attaches the vagina to the uterus
    • SECRETION: produces a mucus that aids in carrying sperm from the vagina to the uterus
  11. uterine or fallopian tubes
    • are about 10 cm (4 inches) long tube
    • FUNCTION: to transport sperm toward the egg, which is released by the ovary, and to then allow passage of the fertilized egg back to the uterus for implantation
    • SECRETION: fluids are calcium, sodium, chloride, glucose (a sugar), proteins, bicarbonates, and lactic acid that help to transport the sperm and the egg and to keep them alive
  12. ovaries
    • Female reproductive organ
    • FUNCTION: responsible for producing the female reproductive cells or ova
    • SECRETION: estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstruation and control the development of the sex organs
  13. fimbriae
    • the distal ends of the tubes are funnel-shaped and have fingerlike projections
    • FUNCTION: sweep over the ovary and wave the egg into the fallopian tube
    • SECRETION: ?
  14. broad ligament
    • the fold that encloses the uterine tubes and uterus and secretes them to the lateral body walls
    • FUNCTION: serves as the mesentery for the uterus, ovaries, and the fallopian tube, and helps in maintaining the uterus in its normal position
    • SECRETION: NONE
  15. testis (singular), testes (plural)
    • the primary reproductive organ of the male
    • FUNCTION: produce sperm and male sex hormones
    • SECRETION: testosterone, an androgenic hormone

    The hypothalamus and pituitary gland control how much testosterone the testes produce and secrete. The hypothalamus sends a signal to the pituitary gland to release gonadotrophic substances (follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone). Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates testosterone production. If too much testosterone is produced, the hypothalamus alerts the pituitary gland to make less LH, which tells the testes to decrease testosterone levels.
  16. scrotum
    • FUNCTION: protect the testes and to keep them at a temperature 94° F (34° C) approximately for spermatogenesis to occur
    • SECRETION: ?
  17. epididymis
    • FUNCTION: stores sperm and transports it from the testes
    • SECRETION: glycogen to help keep stored sperm cells alive
  18. ductus or vas deferens
    • FUNCTION: carry ejaculatory sperm out of the epididymis
    • SECRETION: ?
  19. bladder
    • FUNCTION: stores urine, allowing urination to be infrequent and voluntary
    • SECRETION: urine
  20. anus
    • Distal end of digestive tract or outlet of rectum
    • FUNCTION: detect rectal content, the last part of the digestive tract
    • SECRETION: solid or liquid
  21. rectum
    • FUNCTION: connects the colon to the anus and receives stool from the colon
    • SECRETION: release rectal contents to anus
  22. seminal vesicle
    • FUNCTION: help the sperm swim towards the egg and keep the sperm nourished during the traveling process
    • SECRETION: a viscous alkaline containing fructose and other substances
  23. prostate
    • FUNCTION: produce fluid which protects and enriches sperm
    • SECRETION: a slightly acidic, milky fluid into the urethra

    30% fluid volume
  24. bulbourethral glands
    • FUNCTION: produce thick mucus to clean and lubricate urethra and neutralize acidic urine in urethra
    • SECRETION: thick mucus
  25. urethra
    • Canal through which urine passes from the bladder to outside the body
    • FUNCTION: works as a tube connecting the urinary bladder to the genitals
    • SECRETION: urine from urinary bladder
  26. corpus cavernosum
    • FUNCTION: to house the blood during erection
    • SECRETION: ?
  27. corpus spongiosum
    • FUNCTION: pressurizes and constricts the urethral lumen to allow forceful expulsion of semen
    • SECRETION: ?
  28. glans penis
    • FUNCTION: increase sexual stimulation in both male and female during intercourse
    • SECRETION: NONE

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