From Sea to Land

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  1. problems life deals with on land
    • buoyancy (gravity)
    • dessication (drying out)
    • gases behave differently in air
    • temperature
    • no nutrients in air (filter feeding not so good)

    • animals only: vision (light behaves differently on land)
    • sounds travels differently (adjust hearing)
  2. Plants (metaphyta) transitioning to land need to deal with
    • gravity: need a sturdy structure to stand upright
    • solution: rigid cuticle/wood (cellulose)

    • evaporation: must retain moisture
    • solution: water resistant cuticle

    • nutrients: no nutrients in air
    • solution: roots
  3. benefits to plants on land
    • more CO2: easier to extract
    • light more intense: photosynthesis easier
    • nothing to eat you on land (yet)
  4. When plants transition to land, they transfer nutrients and water from soil through __
    a vascular system

    (However, first land plants would have lacked hard supportive tissues and would not be preserved.)
  5. First plants on land probably evolved from __
    green algae
  6. vascular system
    • transport of nutrients and water between roots and leaves
    • Most plants utilize this today.
  7. conducting strand
    • carries water through the plant
    • developed in first land plants
    • found in simple mosses
    • (Since mosses do not have leaves, stems, or roots, they are not true vascular plants.)
  8. structural adaptations of vascular plants
    • waxy cuticle
    • roots
    • leaves
    • stomata
    • xylem
    • phloem
  9. purpose of cuticle "waxy" layer in vascular plants
    • helps prevent desiccation
    • structural support
    • protection
    • (cannot absorb nutrients)
  10. purpose of roots in vascular plants
    absorption of water and minerals from soil
  11. purpose of leaves in vascular plants
    gas exchange via stomata; photosynthesis
  12. stomata
    pores on leaf surface which regulate gas exchange
  13. networks for fluid transport in vascular plants
    • xylem
    • phloem
  14. xylem
    • tubes lined by dead cells in vascular plants
    • Evaporation creates negative pressure which carries/pumps water/nutrients up the plant from the roots to stems and leaves
  15. phloem
    carries soluble organic materials made during photosynthesis down the plant from the leaves to stem and roots
  16. earliest evidence for plants
    Ordovician spores
  17. characteristics of spores
    • can withstand harsh weather (heat and dessication)
    • require water for growth and fertilization
    • restricted to moist environments
    • designed for dispersal (small and light)
  18. first plant bodies
    • Silurian Sporophytes (similar to club mosses)
    • ex. Cooksonia
  19. seeds
    • embryonic plants (already fertilized) that contain nutrients in a protective cuticle
    • doesn't need to be in moist environments
    • what allowed plants to truly colonize land
  20. Plants diversified during the __ period.
    late Devonian
  21. By the late Devonian period, all major groups of plants had evolved except __
    angiosperms (flowers and fruits)
  22. Lycopods
    • dominant low latitude "forest" builders of the late Paleozoic
    • spore bearing fern-like plants
    • oldest surviving leneage of vascular plants
  23. Arborescent
    • tree-like habit
    • late Devonian
    • major shift from Devonian landscape to Carboniferous
  24. early Devonian landscape
    herbaceous plants, single story
  25. Glossopeteris
    • high latitude coal swamps
    • Gymnosperms more common
  26. Low latitude coal swamps were __ dominated
  27. first metazoan on land
    • arthropods
    • Late Silurian
  28. characteristics of arthropods that made them pre-adapted to land
    • nearly waterproof cover
    • very strong for their size
    • sturdy walking legs
  29. Eurypterids
    • "sea scorpions" (Chelicerata)
    • among the first on land
  30. pre-adaptations of lobefin fish
    • limbs (helped maneuver in shallow water)
    • lungs (derived from gas bladder that regulated buoyancy: became permeable to gases)
    • nostrils (helped breathe air while remaining submerged.. possibly for ambush predation or hiding in shallow stagnant water)
    • ancestor to all tetrapods
    • evolved in the Devonian
  31. benefits of animals moving to land
    • basking (thermoregulation)
    • reproduction (safer for activity and eggs)
    • dried up pools/puddles (became isolated on land, Devonian was Arid, continents were closing water ways)
    • unexploited resources (plants and arthropods: fit for all diets)
  32. tetrapods
    • includes amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
    • 4 limbs
    • known from the late Devonian
    • 1st terrestrial vertebrates
  33. characteristics of earliest tetrapods
    • 4 limbs
    • digits on limbs
    • hinge-like wrist and knee joints
    • pelvic girdle attached to sacral vertebrae
  34. amphibians
    • earliest tetrapods
    • aquatic larval stage
    • terrestrial adults
    • gills as babies, lungs as adults
    • reproduction requires moisture
  35. Elignerpeton
    • oldest known tetrapod (amphibian)
    • known from 4 bones
    • evidence of limb joints
    • jawbone = tetrapod
    • Devonian
  36. Ichthyostega
    • early amphibian
    • broad limbs
    • well developed ribs
    • lacked nuchal gap. i.e. couldn't move its head
    • pelvic girdle not well developed
  37. Acanthostega
    • early amphibian
    • has ankle joint
    • weak ribs
    • agile and aquatic
    • probably lived in shallow water for refuge from large predators
  38. tetrapod limbs
    Humerus, radius, and ulna are stable, but digits vary dramatically.
  39. First tetrapods on land were still dependent on __
    • medial-lateral undulation
    • no major change in locomotion
    • head held still while body moves back and forth
    • derived from early fish
  40. adaptations for vertebrates becoming terrestrial
    • dessication (not too important initially; epidermis would toughen)
    • gravity and locomotion (had stout limbs, ribs, pelvic and pectoral girdles)
    • respiration in air (already had lungs)
    • vision and hearing (vision probably already adapted; nostril bearing lobe fins)
    • reproduction: the amniotic egg
  41. __ allowed vertebrates to become completely terrestrial
    The amniotic egg
  42. structure/function of amniotic egg
    • protective outer shell is semi-permeable to gases, but impermeable to water
    • membranes provide nutrients, water, protection and takes care of waste
  43. amniotes
    • group of tetrapods including all reptiles, birds, and mammals
    • i.e. Synapsida (mammals and mammal-like reptiles) and Sauropsida (reptiles, dinosaurs, and birds)
  44. The classification of amniotes is based on __
    temporal fenestrae (holes in the head behind the eyes)
  45. anapsids
    • amniotes with 0 holes behind eyes
    • primitive reptiles
    • i.e. turtles
  46. synapsids/therapsids
    • amniote with 1 hole behind eyes
    • i.e. mammals
  47. diapsids
    • amniote with 2 holes behind eyes
    • i.e. dinosaurs, pterosaurs and all other living amniotes
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From Sea to Land
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