Social Psychology Chapter 12

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Sharmainhenry
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273547
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Social Psychology Chapter 12
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2014-05-06 23:31:13
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Psychology
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  1. Social psychology
    Study of how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others
  2. Social influence
    The process through with the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual
  3. Social norms
    The customary rules that govern behavior in groups and societies
  4. Conformity
    changing one's own behavior to match that of other people
  5. Groupthink
    Occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned
  6. Compliance
    Changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change
  7. Obedience
    Changing one's behavior at the command of an authority figure
  8. Milgram study
    "teacher" administered what he or she thought were real shocks to a "learner"
  9. Compliance:

    Foot-in-the-door technique
    Asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment
  10. Compliance:

    Door-in-the-face technique
    Asking for a large commitment and being refused, and then asking for a smaller commitment
  11. Compliance:

    Lowball technique
    Getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment
  12. Compliance:

    That's-not-all technique
    The persuader makes an offer then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can make a decision
  13. Group polarization
    Members involved in a group discussion take a more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions than individuals who have not participated in a group discussion
  14. Social facilitation
    The presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task
  15. Social loafing
    People put less effort into a task when working with others on that task
  16. Attitude
    A tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person , object, idea, or situation

    ·Affective (emotional) component

    ·Behavioral component

    ·Cognitive component
  17. Formation of attitudes
    * Direct contact with the person, situation, object, or idea

    * Direct instruction from parents or others

    * Interacting with other people who hold a certain attitude

    * Vicarious conditioning
  18. Persuasion
    One person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation

    Key elements

    * Sources of the message

    * The message itself

    * The target audience
  19. Cognitive dissonance
    Sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person's behavior does not correspond to that person's impression
  20. Attributions
    The process of explaining one's own behavior and the behavior of others
  21. Situational cause
    Attributed to external factors, such as delays, the action of others, or some other aspect of the situation
  22. Dispositional cause
    Attributed to internal factors such as personality or character
  23. Social cognition
    The mental processes that people use to make sense of the social world around them
  24. Impression formation
    Forming of the first knowledge a person has about another person
  25. Primacy effect
    The very first impression one has about a person tends to persist even in the face of evidence to the contrary
  26. Social categorization
    The assignment of a person to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past
  27. Stereotype
    A set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category
  28. Prejudice
    Negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group
  29. Discrimination
    Treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong
  30. In-groups
    Social groups with whom a person identifies: "us"
  31. Out-groups
    Social groups with whom a person does not identify: "them"
  32. Realistic conflict theory
    Conflict between groups increases prejudice and discrimination
  33. Scapegoating
    Tendency to direct prejudice and discrimination at out-group members who have little social power or influence
  34. Social cognitive theory
    Views prejudice as an attitude acquired through direct instruction modeling, and other social influences
  35. Social identity theory
    the formulation of a person's identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison
  36. Social identity
    The part of the self-concept including one's view of self as a member of a particular social category
  37. Stereotype vulnerability
    The effect awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior
  38. Self-fulfilling prophecy
    The tendency of one's expectations to affect one's behavior in such a way as to make the expectation more likely to occur
  39. Attraction
    • Interpersonal attraction
    • · Liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person

    • Proximity
    • · Physical or geographical nearness

    People like people who are similar to themselves OR who are different from themselves (complementary)

    • Reciprocity of liking
    • · Tendency of people to like other people who like them in return
  40. Love
    A strong affection for another person due to kinship, personal ties, sexual attraction, admiration or common interest.

    3 components of love are intimacy, passion, and commitment
  41. Aggression
    * Behavior intended to hurt or destroy another

    * Biological influences on aggression may include genetics, the amygdala and limbic system, and testosterone and serotonin levels. 

    * Social role

    * The pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position

    * Violent TV, movies, and videos are related to aggression
  42. Pro-social behavior
    Socially desirable behavior that benefits others
  43. Altruism
    Pro-social behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself
  44. Kin theory
    The more closely related someone is to us, the more likely we are to help them
  45. Norm of reciprocity
    If someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return
  46. Bystander effect
    The effect the presence of others has on the decision to help or not help; help becomes less likely as the number of bystanders increases
  47. Diffusion of responsibility
    A person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility
  48. 5 steps in making a decision to help
    · Noticing

    · Defining an emergency

    · Taking responsibility

    · Planning a course of action

    · Taking action

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