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Why do people start smoking
- peer pressure
- weight loss- increase metabolism
- attractive to smoke?
- optimistic bias
- fitting in
- addiction- only takes 7 sec to reach brain
- fear of gaining weight
- optimistic bias
- +&- reinforcement
- ---+; smell of tobacco cause relaxation
- ---(-); contin to avoid feelings of withdrawal
health and Nicotine
- neg. corr. btw smoking and edu
- poverty predict. smoking behaviors
- neg. effects- nicotine raises free fatty acids and increase platelet sticking, leads to higher risk of atherosclerosis and heart attack/ stroke
- carbon in cigarettes makes breathing more difficult
- risk - 2x rate of CVD and 9x cancer
stages of smoking
- initiation- reaches brain in 7 sec through dopamine pathways
- regular smoking-routine
- cessation-what you do to stop
- ---> tx methods to stop
- --------->aversion method (shock); hypnosis/ relaxation, enviormental control, and cognitive behavioral tx.
if you know what stage people are on you can help to maintain and change behavior
only certain times
+ affect smoker
smoke to feel better
- affect smokers
smoke when having a bad day- back to base line
- addicted- majority of smokers reach a point where they say 'im done'
- most studies are done on pple who couldn't quit
- addicted to dopamine reaction
- peer pressure
Nicotine Addiction Model
- - The receiver cell attaches
- to the nerve ending of the transmitting nerve cell.
- - Gets to the brain in seven
- - Looking for alertness and
- - Dopamine –
- Neurotransmitter that relays messages
- from the ventral tegmental to the nucleus accumbens.
Social Learning Model
- - People learn through
- observation – media, parents
- - Mental states are important
- to behaviors – Positive reinforcement – makes you feel good. Negative
- reinforcement – smoke because you had a bad day
- - Learning about it does not
- change behavior – optimistic bias
harmfull components of cigarettes
- Primary addictive substance, effects dopamine , raises free fatty acids,
- increases platelet sticking, binds to acetylcholine and dopamine.
- Solid part of smoke. Includes benzene, hydrocarbon, acid, arsenic, nickel,
- cadmium, DDT, Radioactive elements, sticky.
- Results from combustion. CO binds with hemoglobin in place of oxygen and carbon
- dioxide. Interferes with oxygen
- - If you smoke then birth
- control can increase risk of CVD
- - Damages the inner wall of
- arteries and speeds formation of plaque within arteries.
- Blood clots, inflammation
- - Buildup of plaque and
- hardening of the arteries.
- Smoking is a causal factor of cancer in the lip, pharynx, esophagus, pancreas,
- larynx, trachea, urinary bladder, kidney, cervix, and stomach.
- - What is the result of COPD?
- Bronchitis infection and
- inflammation in addiction to emphysema
- which is the scarring of tissue increase in mucus and loss of elasticity.
- - Oxygen tank – good chance
- they have a COPD
pipes and cigars
- risk is elevated only about 5 times that of non smokers
- reduced lung function and increased air obstruction
Cancer of mouth, throat, and tongue.
Anxiety, irritability, and moody.
- Varenicline and Bupropion- help decrease withdrawal symptoms.
- What are some policy/govt. changes that attempt to result in cessation of
- ----->Clean air policy, restricting minor access,
- advertising bans, sin taxes on cigs, more research, and public information.
- nicotine fading
- nicotine replacement
- Patch or the gum, first report feeling irritated
- - Fading – cutting down on the amount you smoke or
- using one that has a lower nicotine content.
- - E- Cigs – Deliver nicotine to the brain without the
- carcinogens. Don’t have long term studies though.
- - Hypnosis and relaxation
- - Aversion methods – electrical shock,
- excessive/focused smoking, smoke holding, controlled smoking
- -Cognitive behavior- negative history, self efficacy –
- succeeding or watching other people succeed helps. Vice versa.
- Relapse prevention (AVE) self-efficacy (the belief to change), Community
-most often triggered by guilt, stress
-self efficacy does matter
-education alone is not enough
-people have to commit to the change
-many people do quit of their own.
abstinence violence effect and smoking
fall off wagon-violate abstinence
- - Fall off the wagon as opposed to having a plan for
- relapse prevention.
emotion and relapse
- - Tried to show that one slip does not mean you should
- have a full relapse.