psychology of health ch.12

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  1. Why do people start smoking
    • peer pressure
    • weight loss- increase metabolism
    • attractive to smoke?
    • optimistic bias
    • fitting in
    • Ad's
  2. continued smoking
    • addiction- only takes 7 sec to reach brain
    • fear of gaining weight
    • optimistic bias
    • +&- reinforcement
    • ---+; smell of tobacco cause relaxation
    • ---(-); contin to avoid feelings of withdrawal
  3. health and Nicotine
    • neg. corr. btw smoking and edu
    • poverty predict. smoking behaviors
    • neg. effects- nicotine raises free fatty acids and increase platelet sticking, leads to higher risk of atherosclerosis and heart attack/ stroke
    • carbon in cigarettes makes breathing more difficult
    • risk - 2x rate of CVD and 9x cancer
  4. stages of smoking
    • initiation- reaches brain in 7 sec through dopamine pathways
    • regular smoking-routine
    • cessation-what you do to stop
    • ---> tx methods to stop
    • --------->aversion method (shock); hypnosis/ relaxation, enviormental control,  and cognitive behavioral tx.
  5. maintenance
    if you know what stage people are on you can help to maintain and change behavior
  6. habitual smoker
    only certain times
  7. + affect smoker
    smoke to feel better
  8. - affect smokers
    smoke when having a bad day- back to base line
  9. addictive smoker
    • addicted- majority of smokers reach a point where they say 'im done'
    • most studies are done on pple who couldn't quit
    • addicted to dopamine reaction
  10. smoking triggers
    • peer pressure
    • routine
    • guilt
    • stress
    • anxiety
    • depression
  11. Nicotine Addiction Model
    • - The receiver cell attaches
    • to the nerve ending of the transmitting nerve cell.

    • - Gets to the brain in seven
    • second.

    • - Looking for alertness and
    • calmness

    • - Dopamine –
    • Neurotransmitter  that relays messages
    • from the ventral tegmental to the nucleus accumbens.
  12. Social Learning Model
    • - People learn through
    • observation – media, parents

    • - Mental states are important
    • to behaviors – Positive reinforcement – makes you feel good. Negative
    • reinforcement – smoke because you had a bad day

    • - Learning about it does not
    • change behavior – optimistic bias
  13. harmfull components of cigarettes

    • -
    • Primary addictive substance, effects dopamine , raises free fatty acids,
    • increases platelet sticking, binds to acetylcholine and dopamine.


    • -
    • Solid part of smoke. Includes benzene, hydrocarbon, acid, arsenic, nickel,
    • cadmium, DDT, Radioactive elements, sticky.

    Carbon Monoxide

    • -
    • Results from combustion. CO binds with hemoglobin in place of oxygen and carbon
    • dioxide. Interferes with oxygen
  14. CVD
    • - If you smoke then birth
    • control can increase risk of CVD

    • - Damages the inner wall of
    • arteries and speeds formation of plaque within arteries.

    - Blood clots, inflammation
  15. Atherosclerosis
    • - Buildup of plaque and
    • hardening of the arteries.
  16. cancer
    • Smoking is a causal factor of cancer in the lip, pharynx, esophagus, pancreas,
    • larynx, trachea, urinary bladder, kidney, cervix, and stomach.
  17. COPD
    • - What is the result of COPD?
    • Bronchitis infection and
    • inflammation in addiction to emphysema
    • which is the scarring of tissue increase in mucus and loss of elasticity.

    • - Oxygen tank – good chance
    • they have a COPD
  18. pipes and cigars
    Still carcinogenic

    • -
    • risk is elevated only about 5 times that of non smokers

    • -
    • reduced lung function and increased air obstruction
  19. smokeless tobacco
    Cancer of mouth, throat, and tongue.
  20. withdrawal
    Anxiety, irritability, and moody.

    • -
    • Varenicline and Bupropion- help decrease withdrawal symptoms.
  21. cessation
    • What are some policy/govt. changes that attempt to result in cessation of
    • smoking? 
    • ----->Clean air policy, restricting minor access,
    • advertising bans, sin taxes on cigs, more research, and public information.
  22. inoculation programs
    • nicotine fading
    • nicotine replacement
    • e-cigs
  23. nicotine replacement
    - Patch or the gum, first report feeling irritated

    • - Fading – cutting down on the amount you smoke or
    • using one that has a lower nicotine content.

    • - E- Cigs – Deliver nicotine to the brain without the
    • carcinogens. Don’t have long term studies though.
  24. behavioral approaches
    • Hypnosis
    • - Hypnosis and relaxation

    • Psychosocial
    • interventions

    • - Aversion methods – electrical shock,
    • excessive/focused smoking, smoke holding, controlled smoking

    -Environmental Control.

    • -Cognitive behavior- negative history, self efficacy –
    • succeeding or watching other people succeed helps. Vice versa.
  25. relapse prevention
    • Relapse prevention (AVE) self-efficacy (the belief to change), Community
    • efforts.

    -most often triggered by guilt, stress

    -self efficacy does matter

    -education alone is not enough

    -people have to commit to the change

    -many people do quit of their own.
  26. abstinence violence effect and smoking
    fall off wagon-violate abstinence

    • - Fall off the wagon as opposed to having a plan for
    • relapse prevention.
  27. emotion and relapse
    • - Tried to show that one slip does not mean you should
    • have a full relapse.

Card Set Information

psychology of health ch.12
2014-05-07 03:58:14
psy health
psy of health
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