Development Chapter 8

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Development Chapter 8
2014-05-07 00:00:27

Vocabulary Terms
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  1. Cross-Sectional Design
    Test groups of people varying in age to test human development
  2. Longitudinal Design
    Testing the same group of people at varying ages as they grow to eliminate  environmental variables in the study
  3. Cross-sequential design
    A combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal design
  4. Genetics
    the science of inherited traits
  5. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid):
    special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism
  6. Gene
    section of DNA having the same arrangement of chemical elements

    ** Dominant: referring to a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait

    ** Recessive: referring to a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene
  7. Nature vs. Nurture

    the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions
  8. Nature vs. Nurture

    the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions
  9. Nature vs. Nurture

    Behavioral genetics
    focuses on nature vs. nurture
  10. 6 motor milestones
    ** Raising head and chest (2-4 months)

    ** Rolling over (2-5 months)

    ** Sitting up with support (4-6 months)

    ** Sitting up without support (6-7 months)

    ** Crawling (7-8 months)

    ** Walking (8-18 months)
  11. Cognitive development
    the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory schemas
  12. Memory schemas
    a mental concept formed through experiences with objects and events
  13. Piaget's Stage theory

    Sensorimotor stage
    uses the senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment

    · Object permanence: knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight
  14. Piaget's Stage theory

    Preoperational stage
    learn to use language as a means of exploring the world
  15. Egocentrism
    inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes
  16. Centration
    tendency of a young child to focus only on one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant features
  17. Conservation
    ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object's nature
  18. Irreversibility
    inability to mentally reverse an action
  19. Concrete operations stage
    capable of logical thought processes but not abstract thinking
  20. Formal operations stage
    become capable of abstract thinking
  21. Vygotsky's Theory
    stressed the importance of social interactions with others, typically more highly skilled children and adults
  22. Scaffolding
    process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable
  23. Modern theories of language
    * Focus on environmental influences on language

    * Child-directed speech: children attend to higher-pitched, repetitious, sing-songs speech

    * Receptive-productive lag
  24. Temperament
    the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth

    ** Easy: regular, adaptable, and happy

    ** Difficult: irregular, non-adaptable, and irritable

    ** Slow to warm up: need to adjust gradually to change
  25. Attachment
    the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver

    • * Secure
    • * Avoidant
    • * Ambivalent