psychology of health ch.13
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psychology of health ch.13
- 18-24 Highest rate of binge
- What is considered binge
drinking? 5 or more drinks
- 25-44 highest rate of
- Men drink more than women.
- More education is
associated with more drinking.
-------------->What is the link of education to drinking? As
education increases so does drinking.
- Heavy drinkers expeience
thiamin deficiency which is worsened by their poor nutrition.
------> Alcohol accelerates progression of thiamin related
Physiology of alcohol ingestion
- Alcohol dehydrogenase – in
the liver no other function except to metabolize alcohol. Breaks down alcohol
into aldehyde which is a very toxic chemical
- Aldehyde Dehydrogenase –
converts aldehyde to acetic acid.
- Alcohol dehydrogenase
deficiency – unable to process alcohol well, so small amounts create flushing
- Metabolized in the liver –
fat then scar tissue then damage. May have to get liver transplant.
Alcohol, metabolism and absorption
- How the body processes
- J shaped curve if you drink
a little you are better off than a heavy drinker when it comes to heart
- Your body weight depends on
how quickly you will absorb the alcohol
- Tolerance- builds with continued use.
-Women absorb alcohol more
- restlessness, irritability
- built up changes in gaba.
When you quit your body must adjust.
- tremors, seizures, and
Dopamine reinforcement pathways
- GABA- inhibitory
transmitter- regulates mood and behavior
- Alcohol, barbiturates, and
anxiety meds – are similar to the shape of GABA
- Promotes inhibition
- - How does tolerance
develop molecularly and what is the response?
Need increased drugs to get the same effects because GABA, an inhibitory
molecule, becomes associated with the behavior.
direct physical effects of alcohol
- What is the effect of
substance dependence on alcohol?
------->loss of control, impairment in critical function,
and physical adaptation to the substance.
- Tolerance- the more you
drink the more your body tries to adapt the receptors.
cirrhosis of the liver
- What is the development and
order of Cirrhosis?
- ---->Starts with fibrosis this can cause fat to deposit
and scar tissue, this develops into connective tissue growth resulting in
cancer of esophagus
- How does alcohol decrease
CVD problems? Increases HDL levels.
- Large amounts and heavy
drinking can create heart problems
- Social drinking may in fact
benefit heart health.
Fetal Alcohol syndrome
- a pattern of mental and
physical defects that can develop in a fetus in association with high levels of
alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
negative effects of drinking
injuries, violence, suicide/ homicide, crime, and poor sexual and emotional judgement (more likely to get sexually assaulted)
benefits of alcohol
- Decreases CVD problems by
increasing HDL levels
- may protects against
ischemic strokes by reducing clotting
- May decrease type 2
diabetes and might lower risk of gallstones
- Could even decrease h pylori which is associated with ulcers.
- May be related to decreased
risk of Alzheimer’s.
- Alcohol may increase the
risk of hemorrhagic strokes, but may protect against ischemic strokes by
the disease model
- Gamma Alcoholism- loss of
control once drinking begins
- Delta Alcoholism –
inability to abstain from drinking.
Alcohol Dependency Syndrome
- Alcohol dependent people
have impaired control; people drink heavily because they do not exercise
control over their drinking.
life of party
Produces alterations in cognitive thinking
---- - People will begin to have
- ------They escape tension or process
------ - They escape reality.
social learning model
conceptualized drinking as learned behaviors
---why pple begin to drink
-------the taste of alcohol and the immediate effects of pleasure
-------person escapes the unpleasant situation
-------learn to drink by observing others
--why they conti to drink in moderations
--why some pple drink in a harmful manner
--------they drink with other heavy drinkers
TX for alcohol
Unassisted change or natural recovery.
have social support but not formal therapy.
-Motivational Interviewing – therapists convey their empathy with the clients
situation and help them resolve their issues.
- A person must maintain total abstinence from alcohol and everything else that can
lead to drinking alcohol
-Eliminate social connections
AVE and alcohol
- aimed at changing
cognitions so that the addict comes to believe that one slip does not equal
- Have a plan at for recovery
and what to do if relapse happens.
- Narcotics anonymous – self
- Abuse leads to legal,
financial, interpersonal problems
- Heroin, morphine, and codeine
are classified as narcotics and are used to manage pain or find pleasure.
- Short Term symptoms of
Heroin use – dry mouth, euphoria, warm skin, slowed breathing and weak muscles.
- Low doses make people feel
relaxed and even euphoric
- High doses can cause loss
of consciousness and result in coma and death as a result of inhibitory effects
on the brain
- Benzodiazepines, Alcohol
depresses the system at GABA receptors.
-Caffeine interferes with adenosine (neurotransmitter); at multiple sites in the
brain including the reticular formation which regulates attention and sleep.
-What kind of effects are commonly associated with caffeine ingestion?
-Increased heart rate (constricts blood vessels), Relaxes air passages to
improve breathing, and allows some muscles to contract more easily.
-Positive effects of caffeine? Attention, lower CVD, lower diabetes and higher
-Negative effects of caffeine? Anxiety and addictions, high blood pressure,
reduced motor control and peeing too much.
- LSD, mescaline and
psilocybin are classified as hallucinogens because they release serotonin
- Can have hallucinogenic
effects, relaxation, memory impairment, euphoria, increased appetite, impaired
- Stalk of marijuana can also
be used to make materials and food.
- Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
is the active chemical in marijuana that travels from the lungs to the
bloodstream to the brain.
- Four primary areas affected
by THC – STM, coordination, learning, and problem solving.
- High concentrations of
cannabinoid receptors exist in the following three brain structures –
hippocampus, cerebellum, and the basal ganglia.
- enhance athletic
- Thickening of vocal cords,
enlargement of larynx, increase muscle decrease body fat.