psychology of health ch.13

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joelenegonzalez
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psychology of health ch.13
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2014-05-07 00:29:55
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  1. binge drinking
    • - 18-24 Highest rate of binge
    • drinking

    • - What is considered binge
    • drinking? 5 or more drinks
  2. heavy drinking
    • - 25-44 highest rate of
    • drinking.

    - Men drink more than women.

    • - More education is
    • associated with more drinking. 
    • -------------->What is the link of education to drinking? As
    • education increases so does drinking.

    • - Heavy drinkers expeience
    • thiamin deficiency which is worsened by their poor nutrition. 
    •        ------> Alcohol accelerates progression of thiamin related
    • brain damage.
  3. Physiology of alcohol ingestion
    • - Alcohol dehydrogenase – in
    • the liver no other function except to metabolize alcohol. Breaks down alcohol
    • into aldehyde which is a very toxic chemical

    • - Aldehyde Dehydrogenase –
    • converts aldehyde to acetic acid.

    • - Alcohol dehydrogenase
    • deficiency – unable to process alcohol well, so small amounts create flushing
    • and illness.

    • - Metabolized in the liver –
    • fat then scar tissue then damage. May have to get liver transplant.
  4. Alcohol, metabolism and absorption
    - BAC

    • - How the body processes
    • alcohol. (BAC)

    • - J shaped curve if you drink
    • a little you are better off than a heavy drinker when it comes to heart
    • disease.

    • - Your body weight depends on
    • how quickly you will absorb the alcohol

    - Tolerance-  builds with continued use.

    • -Women absorb alcohol more
    • efficiently.
  5. withdrawal
    • - restlessness, irritability
    • and, agitation.

    • - built up changes in gaba.
    • When you quit your body must adjust.

    • - tremors, seizures, and
    • delirium
  6. Dopamine reinforcement pathways
    • - GABA- inhibitory
    • transmitter- regulates mood and behavior

    • - Alcohol, barbiturates, and
    • anxiety meds – are similar to the shape of GABA

                    - Promotes inhibition

    • - - How does tolerance
    • develop molecularly and what is the response?

    • -
    • Need increased drugs to get the same effects because GABA, an inhibitory
    • molecule, becomes associated with the behavior.
  7. direct physical effects of alcohol
    • - What is the effect of
    • substance dependence on alcohol?

    •   ------->loss of control, impairment in critical function,
    • and physical adaptation to the substance.

    • - Tolerance- the more you
    • drink the more your body tries to adapt the receptors.
  8. cirrhosis of the liver
    • - What is the development and
    • order of Cirrhosis? 
    • - ---->Starts with fibrosis this can cause fat to deposit
    • and scar tissue, this develops into connective tissue growth resulting in
    • Cirrhosis.
  9. respiratory effects
    cancer of esophagus
  10. Cardiovascular system
    • - How does alcohol decrease
    • CVD problems? Increases HDL levels.

    • - Large amounts and heavy
    • drinking can create heart problems

    • - Social drinking may in fact
    • benefit heart health.
  11. Fetal Alcohol syndrome
    • - a pattern of mental and
    • physical defects that can develop in a fetus in association with high levels of
    • alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

    - Indirect
  12. negative effects of drinking
    injuries, violence, suicide/ homicide, crime, and poor sexual and emotional judgement (more likely to get sexually assaulted)
  13. benefits of alcohol
    • - Decreases CVD problems by
    • increasing HDL levels
    • - may protects against
    • ischemic strokes by reducing clotting
    • - May decrease type 2
    • diabetes and might lower risk of gallstones
    • -  Could even decrease h pylori which is associated with ulcers.
    • - May be related to decreased
    • risk of Alzheimer’s.
    • - Alcohol may increase the
    • risk of hemorrhagic strokes, but may protect against ischemic strokes by
    • reducing clotting.
  14. the disease model
    • - Gamma Alcoholism- loss of
    • control once drinking begins

    • - Delta Alcoholism –
    • inability to abstain from drinking.
  15. Alcohol Dependency Syndrome
    • - Alcohol dependent people
    • have impaired control; people drink heavily because they do not exercise
    • control over their drinking.
  16. expectation theory
    life of party
  17. Alcohol Myopia
    • Produces alterations in cognitive thinking
    • ---- - People will begin to have
    • exaggerated thoughts. 
    • - ------They escape tension or process
    • information differently
    • ------ - They escape reality.
  18. social learning model
    • cultural norm
    • conceptualized drinking as learned behaviors
    • ---why pple begin to drink
    • -------the taste of alcohol and the immediate effects of pleasure
    • -------person escapes the unpleasant situation
    • -------learn to drink by observing others
    • --why they conti to drink in moderations
    • --why some pple drink in a harmful manner
    • --------they drink with other heavy drinkers
  19. TX for alcohol
    • Spontaneous remission
    • Unassisted change or natural recovery.
    • -May
    • have social support but not formal therapy.
    • Psychotherapy
    • - Interventions
    • -Motivational Interviewing – therapists convey their empathy with the clients
    • situation and help them resolve their issues.
    • Groups
    • -Alcoholics Anonymous.
    • - A person must maintain total abstinence from alcohol and everything else that can
    • lead to drinking alcohol
    • -Eliminate social connections
  20. AVE and alcohol
    • - aimed at changing
    • cognitions so that the addict comes to believe that one slip does not equal
    • relapse.

    • - Have a plan at for recovery
    • and what to do if relapse happens.
  21. Narcotics
    • - Narcotics anonymous – self
    • help groups

    • - Abuse leads to legal,
    • financial, interpersonal problems

    • - Heroin, morphine, and codeine
    • are classified as narcotics and are used to manage pain or find pleasure.

    • - Short Term symptoms of
    • Heroin use – dry mouth, euphoria, warm skin, slowed breathing and weak muscles.
  22. Sedatives
    • - Low doses make people feel
    • relaxed and even euphoric

    • - High doses can cause loss
    • of consciousness and result in coma and death as a result of inhibitory effects
    • on the brain

    • - Benzodiazepines, Alcohol
    • depresses the system at GABA receptors.
  23. Stimulants
    caffeine
    • -Caffeine interferes with adenosine (neurotransmitter); at multiple sites in the
    • brain including the reticular formation which regulates attention and sleep.
    • -What kind of effects are commonly associated with caffeine ingestion?
    • -Increased heart rate (constricts blood vessels), Relaxes air passages to
    • improve breathing, and allows some muscles to contract more easily.
    • -Positive effects of caffeine? Attention, lower CVD, lower diabetes and higher
    • metabolism
    • -Negative effects of caffeine? Anxiety and addictions, high blood pressure,
    • reduced motor control and peeing too much.
  24. Hallucinogens
    • - LSD, mescaline and
    • psilocybin are classified as hallucinogens because they release serotonin
  25. marijuana
    • - Can have hallucinogenic
    • effects, relaxation, memory impairment, euphoria, increased appetite, impaired
    • coordination.

    • - Stalk of marijuana can also
    • be used to make materials and food.

    • - Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
    • is the active chemical in marijuana that travels from the lungs to the
    • bloodstream to the brain.

    • - Four primary areas affected
    • by THC – STM, coordination, learning, and problem solving.

    • - High concentrations of
    • cannabinoid receptors exist in the following three brain structures –
    • hippocampus, cerebellum, and the basal ganglia.
  26. anabolic steroids
    • - enhance athletic
    • performance

    • - Thickening of vocal cords,
    • enlargement of larynx, increase muscle decrease body fat.

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