psychology of health ch.14

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psychology of health ch.14
2014-05-07 01:02:25
psy health

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  1. calories
    energy in food
  2. fats
    • -Saturated fat raises total blood cholesterol and LDL which can increase risk of
    • CVD
    • -Trans-fat occurs naturally in some foods, but are sometimes called synthetic by
    • means of hydrogenation of unsaturated fats making them less likely to spoil.
    • -Mono saturated fats are at liquid but begin to solidify at solids.  This type of fat is preferable and is found
    • in olive based foods and avocados.  Some
    • studies have shown they can lower LDL and raise HDL.
    • -Problems with fats are build up of LDL and results in atherosclerosis.
    • -Oily, greasy substance
  3. carbohydrates
    simple sugars and complex starches
  4. fiber
    • Fiber that is water soluble may decrease
    • cholesterol, while fiber that is water insoluble may decrease cancer.
  5. sodium, potassium, calcium
    need all 3 but most of us just get too much salt
  6. protein
    • - Lack of vitamin D can lead
    • to Rickets – Bone Malformation

    • - Lack of Vitamin C can lead
    • to scurvy – Pirates – loss of teeth and limbs. Due to no refrigeration.

    - Lack of iodine – goiter

    - Lack of Thiamine – Beriberi

    - Pallagra- Niacin
  7. hypothalamus
    • Lateral hypothalamus
    • - If damaged you lose weight.
    • -hunger center – tells you when you are hungry.

    • Ventromedial  Hypothalamus
    • - If damaged you eat more
    • -satiety center – tells you when you are full
  8. leptin
    • -Protein hormone that causes
    • weight loss.
    • - Insulin – pancreas – allows
    • body cells to take in glucose for their use.
    • - high
    • insulin production leads to the intake of more glucose than cells can use, and
    • the excess is converted into fat in the body. 
    • ------------- Sends signals of satiation and decreasing appetite.
    • -Ghrelin – hormone that
    • stimulates hunger
    • - Hard to balance hunger if you
    • don’t have all of these working properly.
    • - When leptin levels decrease
    • the hypothalamus is activated to induce hunger.
  9. starvation study
    • - Ancel keys studied the
    • relationship of dieting and depression

    • - Participants became moody,
    • depressed, and irritable.

    • - When experiment was over
    • they gained their weight back and then some.
  10. Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.
    We should be a certain weight based off of our height

    Relative weight

    Body mass index
  11. skinfold caliper
    • - Measures how far calipers
    • are apart to determine fat percentage.
  12. electric conductance
    • Electrical
    • waves will pass differently through fat and muscle – not accurate.
  13. Hydrostatic weighing
    Weigh above and below water then compare proportions of fat to muscle.
  14. fat cell theory
    • -Once we finish growing we can no longer produce fat cells.
    • -Leaner children will have fewer fat cells than overweight children

    • Hyperplastic obesity
    • -High number of fatcells

    • Hypertrophic obesity
    • -Oversized fat cells that are able to expand more
  15. genetics
    pple more prone to obesity than others
  16. set point
    • - We have a setpoint in which
    • our body is comfortable
    • - deviation from our normal
    • weight is only achieved with difficulty.
  17. settling out theory
    • - If you maintain these
    • factors at a certain level then your body will begin to adjust to these
    • functions.
    • - If you overeat then your
    • body will get used to it and expect it but as your body gets older it will
    • break down you will get less insulin and destroy the pancreas thus creating
    • diabetes
  18. positive incentive model
    • - Positive reinforcement of
    • eating has important consequences for weight maintenance.
    • - People have several types
    • of motivation to eat
    • ------- personal pleasure – pleasure from the type and taste of food
    • --------- Social context – cultural background and peers
    • -------- - biological factors – length of time since last eating and blood glucose levels

    • - Predicts food habits and
    • weight
  19. treating obesity
    (diet, yoyo dieting, exercise, surgery, behavior modification)
    • -Too good to be true.
    • - No miracle pill or weight loss.

    • Yoyo dieting
    • -Successful in weight loss but unsuccessful in maintaining weight loss.

    • Exercise
    • -Need to combine healthful eating and exercise.

    • Surgery
    • -Restrict the size of the stomach
    • -Used for people with health problems
    • -Expensive and may have risks such as infection.

    • Behavior Modification
    • -eating is a behavior that is subject for change.
    • -The behaviors are the targets for reward and change
  20. childhood obesity
    if you fat as a kid, your most likely gonna be fat as an adult
  21. Anorexia - know symptoms, possible causes andtreatments
    • - Lack of appetite due to
    • nervous or psychological condition
    • - Symptoms – intentional
    • starvation, loses hair and interests becomes hostile. Has to do with control.
    • - Causes – family problems,
    • peers
    • - Treatment – 3% die (cardiac
    • arrhythmia), cognitive behavioral therapy, antidepressants and antipsychotic
    • drug.
    • - Amenorreha – no period for
    • 3 cycles due to not eating
  22. Bulimia- know symptoms, possible causes and treatments
    • - Continuous,
    • morbid hunger
    • - binging and purging
    • -symptoms – hypoglycemia –
    • deficiency of sugar in the blood.
    • - Treatment – Cognitive
    • behavioral therapy