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- -Saturated fat raises total blood cholesterol and LDL which can increase risk of
- -Trans-fat occurs naturally in some foods, but are sometimes called synthetic by
- means of hydrogenation of unsaturated fats making them less likely to spoil.
- -Mono saturated fats are at liquid but begin to solidify at solids. This type of fat is preferable and is found
- in olive based foods and avocados. Some
- studies have shown they can lower LDL and raise HDL.
- -Problems with fats are build up of LDL and results in atherosclerosis.
- -Oily, greasy substance
simple sugars and complex starches
- Fiber that is water soluble may decrease
- cholesterol, while fiber that is water insoluble may decrease cancer.
sodium, potassium, calcium
need all 3 but most of us just get too much salt
- - Lack of vitamin D can lead
- to Rickets – Bone Malformation
- - Lack of Vitamin C can lead
- to scurvy – Pirates – loss of teeth and limbs. Due to no refrigeration.
- Lack of iodine – goiter
- Lack of Thiamine – Beriberi
- Pallagra- Niacin
- Lateral hypothalamus
- - If damaged you lose weight.
- -hunger center – tells you when you are hungry.
- Ventromedial Hypothalamus
- - If damaged you eat more
- -satiety center – tells you when you are full
- -Protein hormone that causes
- weight loss.
- - Insulin – pancreas – allows
- body cells to take in glucose for their use.
- - high
- insulin production leads to the intake of more glucose than cells can use, and
- the excess is converted into fat in the body.
- ------------- Sends signals of satiation and decreasing appetite.
- -Ghrelin – hormone that
- stimulates hunger
- - Hard to balance hunger if you
- don’t have all of these working properly.
- - When leptin levels decrease
- the hypothalamus is activated to induce hunger.
- - Ancel keys studied the
- relationship of dieting and depression
- - Participants became moody,
- depressed, and irritable.
- - When experiment was over
- they gained their weight back and then some.
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.
We should be a certain weight based off of our height
Body mass index
- - Measures how far calipers
- are apart to determine fat percentage.
- waves will pass differently through fat and muscle – not accurate.
Weigh above and below water then compare proportions of fat to muscle.
fat cell theory
- -Once we finish growing we can no longer produce fat cells.
- -Leaner children will have fewer fat cells than overweight children
- Hyperplastic obesity
- -High number of fatcells
- Hypertrophic obesity
- -Oversized fat cells that are able to expand more
pple more prone to obesity than others
- - We have a setpoint in which
- our body is comfortable
- - deviation from our normal
- weight is only achieved with difficulty.
settling out theory
- - If you maintain these
- factors at a certain level then your body will begin to adjust to these
- - If you overeat then your
- body will get used to it and expect it but as your body gets older it will
- break down you will get less insulin and destroy the pancreas thus creating
positive incentive model
- - Positive reinforcement of
- eating has important consequences for weight maintenance.
- - People have several types
- of motivation to eat
- ------- personal pleasure – pleasure from the type and taste of food
- --------- Social context – cultural background and peers
- -------- - biological factors – length of time since last eating and blood glucose levels
- - Predicts food habits and
(diet, yoyo dieting, exercise, surgery, behavior modification)
- -Too good to be true.
- - No miracle pill or weight loss.
- Yoyo dieting
- -Successful in weight loss but unsuccessful in maintaining weight loss.
- -Need to combine healthful eating and exercise.
- -Restrict the size of the stomach
- -Used for people with health problems
- -Expensive and may have risks such as infection.
- Behavior Modification
- -eating is a behavior that is subject for change.
- -The behaviors are the targets for reward and change
if you fat as a kid, your most likely gonna be fat as an adult
Anorexia - know symptoms, possible causes andtreatments
- - Lack of appetite due to
- nervous or psychological condition
- - Symptoms – intentional
- starvation, loses hair and interests becomes hostile. Has to do with control.
- - Causes – family problems,
- - Treatment – 3% die (cardiac
- arrhythmia), cognitive behavioral therapy, antidepressants and antipsychotic
- - Amenorreha – no period for
- 3 cycles due to not eating
Bulimia- know symptoms, possible causes and treatments
- - Continuous,
- morbid hunger
- - binging and purging
- -symptoms – hypoglycemia –
- deficiency of sugar in the blood.
- - Treatment – Cognitive
- behavioral therapy