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What is the first antigen you see for a primary response when you express or see a disease?
- After first exposure to an Ag immune system produces an IgM and a gradual increase in Ab titer concentration of antibodies with the production of IgG
- Antigen Ag is any subtance that stimulates an immune response
- 2. B and T cells
What is a second antigen for secondary response?
- After second contact with the same Ag, immune system produces a more rapid, stronger response due to Memory cells- anamenstic response
- IgG produces memory cells
When you have a secondary response to an antigen, what are some of the things that can happen?
- AKA anamnestic (recalling) provides quick and potent attack against a second exposure to secondary agent. Thanks to memory B cells formed during primary exposure
- You become immune to it because of memory cells
- Shortens sickness because your body knows it already
What kind of antibody gives you protection for your respiratory system? Genital and urinary system?
IgE: mast cells are located in the connective tissue of virtually all organs; high concentration in lungs, skin, GI, and genital tract
How do you make killed or inactivated vaccines?
- Cultivate the desired strain, treat it with formalin or some other agent that kilsl agent but does not kill antigenicity
- Often requires a larger dose and more boosters to be effective
- Usually with heat or chemicals or radiation. Its not deadly but still kieeps the antgenetic response.
- Killed whole cells or inactivated viruses that do no reproduce but are antigenic
What are live attenuated vaccines?
- Process that substantially lessens or negates the virulence of viruses or bacteria - eliminates virulence factors
- Advantages of live prepartions are:
- Organisms can multiply and produce infection (but not disease) like the natural organism
- They confer long-lasting protection
- Usually require fewer doses and boosters
- Disadvantages include:
- Require special storage, can be transmitted to other people, can conceivably mutate back to virulent strain
What are acellular and subunits vaccine?
- Vaccines made from bacteria cell parts are acellular
- If they are made from viruses they are called subunits
- A cellular or subunit components of microbes such as surface antigen or neutralized toxins. (toxoids)
- Exact antigenic determinants can be used when known:
- -capsules - pneumococcus, meningococcus
- -surface protein- anthrax, heptatis B
- -Exotoxins- diphtheria, tetanus
- Antigen can be taken from cultures, produced by genetic engineering, or synthesized
What are toxoids?
Consists of purified fragment of bacteria exotoxin that has been inactivated.
Know the definitions of adjuvant
- An adjunct is added to a vaccine to make it more effective.
- A compound that enhances immunogenicity and prolongs antigen retention at the injection site.
What is Variolation?
Deliberate inoculation of dried pus from the smallpox pustules of one of the patients into an arm of a healthy person
What are the qualities of a good vaccine?
- It should have a low level of adverse side effects
- Should protect against exposure to natural, wild forms of pathogens
- Should stimulate both B cell (antibody) response and T cell (cell mediated) response
- Have long term lasting effects (produce memory)
- Not require numerous doses/boosters
- Inexpensive and long shelf life
What are anti-toxins?
Is an antibody that has the ability to neurtalize a specific toxin. Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants and bacteria. Although they are most effective in neutralizing toxins, they can kill bacteria and other microorganisms. Antitoxins are made with organisms, but can be injected into other organisms, including humans.
Define: Immunopathology, Hypersensitivity (allergic), Autoimmunity, Immunodeficiency and cancer
- Immunpathology: the study of disease states associated with underactivity and overactivity of the immune response
- Hypersensitvity: an exaggerated misdirected expression of immune responses to an allergen (antigen)
- Autoimmunity: abnormal responses to self Ag
- Immunodeficieny: deficiency or loss of immunity
- Cancer: both a cause and effect of immune dysfunction
Different types of hypersensitivty. Stages 1-4
- Type 1: two levels of severity
- Atopy: any chronic or local allergy such as hay fever or asthma
- Anaphylaxis: a systematic, often explosive reaction that involves airway obstruction and circulaotry collapse
- Type 2: Reactions that Lyse foreign cells
- Involve antibodies compliment, leading to lysis of foreign cells
- Transfusion reactions: ABO blood groups and Rh factor - hemolytic disease of newborn
- Type 3: Reaction of soluble antigen with antibody and the deposition of the resulting complexes in basement membranes of epithelial tissue
- Immune complexes become trapped in tissues and incite a damaging inflammatory response
- Arthus reaction: localized dermal injury due to inflammed blood vessels
- Serum sickness: systematic injury initiated by antigen-antibody complexes that circulate in blood
- Type 4: Hypersensitvity
- T-Cell mediated
- Delayed response to Ag involving activation of and damage by T cells
- Delayed allergic response - skin response to allergens - tuberculin skin test contact dermatitis from plants, metals, cosmetics
Blood types: If someone is a certain type, what kind of antibodies can they have? Like if they have type O, what are they missing or what can they have?
- They can only accept the same antibodies as they already have
- 4 blood types, A, AB, B or O
- Blood type O has no antigens in it
- Blood type ab has both a and b anitgens.
If someone has both antibodies against both A and b, what can happen in this person? What happens if you give them the wrong blood type?
Destruction of the RBC's or hemolysis
Hemolytic disease for the newborn, what is this? What conditions have to occur for this condition?
- Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn: HDN: an Rh mother forms antibodies to her Rh + fetus; usually requires subsequent exposure to the antigen to be hemolytic.
- Prevention requires the use of passive immunizationwith antibodies against the Rh antigens;
Erythroblastois fetalis, what is this condition and what causes this?
- Rh factor is another RBC antigen that becomes a problem if an Rh = mother is sensitized by an Rh1 fetus
- A second fetus can receive anitbodies she has made aginast the factor and develop hemolytic disease of the newborn
- Prevention involves therapy with Rh immune globulin
Different type of allergns? Know if they can be inhaled, eaten, injected, touched. Know examples of this and what it is. fig 16.2
- Inhalants: Pollen, dust, mold spores, dander, animal hair, insect parts, formalin, drugs
- Ingestants: food, food additive and drugs
- Injectants: hymenopteran venom, (bee, wasp), drugs, vaccines, serums, enzymes, hormones
- Contactants: drugs, cosmetics, heavy metals, detergents, formalin, rubber, solvents, dyes
Symptoms of type 1 hypersensitivty? ex: poison ivy, hay fever, transfusion problems
- 1. swelling of nasal mucousa
- 2. sinuses
- 3. redness and itchness of eyes
- 4. sneezing, coughing, bronchioconstriction, wheezing and dyspnea, asthma attacks, constriction of airway called Laryngeal edema
- 5. ears feeling full, pain, impaired hearing due to lack of eustactian tube drainage
- 6. skin rash, eczema, and hives
- 7. abnormal pain, vomiting, bloating and diarrhea
What do histamines do?
- Histamine: most prefuse and fast acting; stimulator of smooth muscle, glands and eosinophils.
- Response to chemical depends on the muscle location; constricts muscle of small bronchi, intestines; relaxes vascular smooth muscles
What is postoglandin, glucodrenine?
Serotonin, leukotrines, prostaglandins, bradykinin are additional allergic mediators
What is epinephrine?
- A substance produced by the medulla of the adrenal gland.
- Causes quickening of the heart beat, stregthens force of heart contraction, opens up airways (brocnhioles) in the lungs and has numerous effects.
- The secretion of the adrenal causes the fight-or-flight reaction
Know examples of diseases of auto antibodies
- Autoimmune diseases are genetically determined and more common in females
- 1. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, systemic disease in which antibodies are deposited in the kidney, skin, lungs and heart.
- 2. Rheumatoid Arthritis autoimmunity in the joints; appears to be associated w/ immune complexes that cause chronic inflammation and scar tissue.
- 3. Endocrine Autoimmunities include Graves disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and types I and II diabetes mellitus
- 4. Myasthenia Gravis is an immune attack upon the myoneural junction, with muscle paralysis
- 5. In multiple sclerosis, T cells and antibodies damage the myelin sheath of nerve cells; accompanied by motor and sensory loss.
Define: Hemotology, histology, serology
- Hemotology: The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of the blood and bone marrow as well as the immunologic, hemostatic (blood clotting) and vascular systems. Because the nature of blood, the science of hemotology profoundly effects the understanfing of other diseases.
- Histology: the study of the forms of structures seem under the microscope. Histology is a treatise of the tissues of the body and cells thereof.
- Serology: in vitro - diagnostic testing of serum. Antibodies have extreme specificty for antigens
What is a serum titer?
When you take a sample of someones blood and tell what type of antibodies they have
What is sputum? Where can you get them?
Respiratory tract, mucous secretions that coat the lower respiratory surface,m esp the lungs. It is discharged by coughing or catherter to avoid containment
If someone has a postive titer to a certain disease, what are the possible combinations and what do they mean?
- You are positive to something
- Been exposed to it before
- Or you have disease