BI0005 - Lecture 19 - The newborn Child
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What changes take place at birth?
• In foetus some organs not fully functional
• Changes required at birth
• To give fully functional organs
What are the differences between Foetal lungs and lungs after birth?
- Foetal Lungs
- • Collapsed or partially filled
- • Produce surfactant (6 months)
- - Dependent upon mother for oxygen supply and carbon dioxide removal
- At Birth
- • Oxygen supply ceases
- • Carbon dioxide accumulates
- • Respiratory centre in the brain stimulated
- - Baby draws first breath
- - Unusually deep
- - Inflates lungs
- - Surfactant prevents collapse of alveoli
- • High respiration rate (45/min)
- • Decreases to 12/min
What are changes to the newborn circulatory system?
• Foetal circulation adapted for lack of lung function
• Receiving blood from mother
- • Hence 3 shunts to by-pass blood
- – 1 in heart
- – 1 ensures some blood from mother by
- - passes liver and goes straight to heart
- – 1 prevents too much blood going to collapsed lungs
What are the changes to the newborn's renal system?
- • Sole responsibility for maintaining fluid balance & waste disposal
- – Takes few years to fully mature
- • Not as effective at concentrating urine
- – Babies dehydrate more easily
What are the changes to the newborn's gastrointestinal tract?
• Limited secretion of enzymes and hormones by foetus
- • Takes a few days to properly establish after birth
- – Use fat and glycogen stores
- • 1st milk feeds gives:
- – Rapid increase in gut size
- – Stimulation of digestive juices and motility
How does the newborn's temperature regulation system change?
• Adjust from warm, moist, constant environment of mother’s uterus to cooler outside world
• Heat lost by variety of routes
- • Large surface area relative to volume
- – Makes heat loss easy
- Needs Brown adipose tissue
- • Extra brown fat – 200g high proportion of body mass
- • Generates heat
- • Well vascularised so heat taken to rest of body
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