BI0005 - Lecture 19 - The newborn Child

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james14hunter
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273608
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BI0005 - Lecture 19 - The newborn Child
Updated:
2014-05-07 10:10:46
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BI0005 Lecture 19 newborn Child
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BI0005 - Lecture 19 - The newborn Child
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BI0005 - Lecture 19 - The newborn Child
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  1. What changes take place at birth?
    • In foetus some organs not fully functional

    • Changes required at birth

    • To give fully functional organs
  2. What are the differences between Foetal lungs and lungs after birth?
    • Foetal Lungs
    • • Collapsed or partially filled
    • • Produce surfactant (6 months)
    •    - Dependent upon mother for oxygen supply and carbon dioxide removal

    • At Birth
    • • Oxygen supply ceases
    • • Carbon dioxide accumulates
    • • Respiratory centre in the brain stimulated
    •    - Baby draws first breath
    •    - Unusually deep
    •    - Inflates lungs
    •    - Surfactant prevents collapse of alveoli
    • • High respiration rate (45/min)
    • • Decreases to 12/min
  3. What are changes to the newborn circulatory system?
    • Foetal circulation adapted for lack of lung function

    • Receiving blood from mother

    • • Hence 3 shunts to by-pass blood
    •    – 1 in heart
    •    – 1 ensures some blood from mother by
    •    - passes liver and goes straight to heart
    •    – 1 prevents too much blood going to collapsed lungs
  4. What are the changes to the newborn's renal system?
    • • Sole responsibility for maintaining fluid balance & waste disposal
    •    – Takes few years to fully mature

    • • Not as effective at concentrating urine
    •    – Babies dehydrate more easily
  5. What are the changes to the newborn's gastrointestinal tract?
    • Limited secretion of enzymes and hormones by foetus

    • • Takes a few days to properly establish after birth
    •    – Use fat and glycogen stores

    • • 1st milk feeds gives:
    •    – Rapid increase in gut size
    •    – Stimulation of digestive juices and motility
  6. How does the newborn's temperature regulation system change?
    • Adjust from warm, moist, constant environment of mother’s uterus to cooler outside world

    • Heat lost by variety of routes

    • • Large surface area relative to volume
    •    – Makes heat loss easy

    • Needs Brown adipose tissue
    • • Extra brown fat – 200g high proportion of body mass
    • • Generates heat
    • • Well vascularised so heat taken to rest of body

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