Biology Ch 6

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cswett
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27361
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Biology Ch 6
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2010-07-26 21:44:13
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Biology Cells
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Lecture and Book notes Ch 6 cells
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  1. Every living thing has what 3 things?
    • 1. DNA
    • 2. Ribosomes
    • 3. Plasma Membane
  2. 5 Main Parts of Prokaryotic Cell
    • Ribosomes
    • Plasma Membrane
    • Cell Wall
    • Nucleoid Region
    • Microtubules
  3. 3 Parts of the Nucleus
    • 1. Nuclear Envelope (membrane) - Double membrane - perforated by Nuclear Pores
    • 2. Nucleolus - rRNA is synthesized from instructions in the DNA; ribosomal subunits are assembled from proteins and rRNA (moved out into cytoplasm then assembles into a ribosome)
    • 3. Cromatin - a complex of protein and DNA -visible as Chromosomes in a dividing cell (human cells have 46 chromosomes excent sex cells which have 23)
  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Endoplasmic - within the cytoplasm ; reticulum - little net
    • extensive membrane network that continues off the nuclear envelope

    If cell needs more membrane, ER pinched off a part (contains phospolipis & ribosomes) called a vacuole
  5. Ribosomes
    • made of rRNA and protein
    • they carry out protein synthesis
    • FREE RIBOSOMES - suspended in the cytosol - make proteins that operate in the cytoplams - for example, enzymes to break down sugar
    • BOUND RIBOSOMES - bound to the ER and nuclear envelope - make proteins destines for insertion into membranes (packagine with organelle such as lysosomes)
    • Free and bound are structurally the same and can change places...they produce different kinds of proteins
  6. Smooth ER
    • 1) Synthesize lipids - steroids are lipids that are viral to hormones. Areas that produce hormones (testes and ovaries) have lots of smooth ER
    • 2) Store Calcium ions Ca+ (used in muscle contraction) muscle cells have extra smooth ER
    • 3) Detoxify certain drugs in the liver - (lots of smooth ER in the liver) - phenobarbital and other barbituates (seditives) - methanphetimines
  7. Manufacturing Organelles
    • 1. Nucleus
    • 2. Ribosones
    • 3. Rough ER
    • 4. Smooth ER
    • 5. Golgi Bodies (apparatus)
  8. Golgi Bodies (Golgi Apparatus)
    • warehouse, shipping center, refinishing center.
    • Takes in products of the ER, such as protein - modifies, stores and releases them
    • Cis face - usually near ER- take in transport vesicules
    • Trans face - shipping side - vesicules form and leave golgi, carrying specific proteins(enzymes) to other locations or to the plasma membrane for secretion
  9. Breaking Down and Recycleing Organelles
    • Lysosomes
    • Peroxisomes
  10. Lysosomes
    • sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest macromolecules
    • Made by rough ER and transferred to Golgi for further processing
    • USES DIFFERENT ENZYMES TO PERFORM 3 FUNCTIONS
    • 1. Destroy Invaders - when white blood cells attack bacterium, lysosomes release enzymes that break down the invader
    • 2. Recycle -uses enzymes to recycle parts of organelle that are no longer functioning - break down and reuse materials
    • 3. Digest - uses enzymes to digest food in a food vacuole
  11. Peroxisomes
    • uses enzymes to break things down (fatty acids)
    • in the liver detoxifies alcohols - produces hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct then converts it to water
    • If there is too much alcohol pH changes and denaturation occurs
  12. Cytoskeleton
    • skeleton of the cell
    • 1) Microtubules - hollow tubes -flagella - CENTROSOME AND CENTRIOLES
    • 2) Intermediate Philiments - supports nucleus
    • 3) Microphiliments - solid rods
  13. Centrosome and Centrioles
    • a) centrosome - microtubules grow out from the centrosome (animal cells) centrisome is near the nucleus and is a microtubule orgaizine center
    • b) centrioles - in the centrosome is a pair of centrioles - each centriole is composed of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring
    • Plants to not have centrioles
  14. Mitochondria
    • converts energy to a form that the cell can use for work
    • Cellular respiration - the process that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats,and other fuels with the help of oxygen
    • HAS A DOUBLE MEMBRANE Inner membrane is folded around the CRISTAE extra surface area to make more ATP
    • also has its own DNA but only from maternal lines - Mitochondrial DNA
  15. Endosymbiosis
    • symbiosis on the inside - symbiotic relationship
    • mitochondria and chloroplasts used to be eukaryotic cells
  16. Chloroplast
    • plants and algae
    • sites of photosynthesis - use solar energy and convert it to chemical energy by the systhesis of organic compounds such as sugars from carbon dioxide and water
    • HAS A DOUBLE MEMBRANE
  17. 2 organelles that used to be prokaryotic cells
    • mitochondria
    • chloroplast
  18. Cell Theory
    • 1800's
    • orgaisms made of cells
    • cell is simplest collection of matter that can live
    • cell structure = cell function
    • cells are related by their descent form earlier cells
  19. who Invented the Light Microscope?
    Anton Leeuwenhoek - 1590
  20. LM
    • Light microscope - visible light passes through a specimen then glass lenses which magnify the image
    • *Only microscope that can be used to see living organisms*
    • up to 1000 times actual size
  21. EM
    SEM
    TEM
    Electron Microscope - 1950 - insted of light shoot beam of electrons

    SEM - Scanning Electron Microscope - specimin coated in gold - looking at outside surface 3D

    • TEM - Transmission Electron Microscope - look at interior structures - have to embed specimin with heavy metals and take thin slices
    • *used to learn about mitochondria in recent years
  22. Cell fractionation
    • takes cells apart and separates the major organelles form one another - allows scientists to study function of organelles
    • *uses centerfuge*
  23. Protists
    single celled eukaryotes - amoeba
  24. Magnification
    ratio of an object's image size to its real size
  25. Resolution
    measure of the clarity of the image - minimum distance two points can be separates and still be distinguished as two points
  26. Contrast
    accuntuates differences in parts of the sample - staining or labeling cell components
  27. Plasma Membrane
    semi-permeable, selective barrier - allows oxygen, nutrients, and waste through...doent let others pass
  28. Plasmodesmata
    • openings from one cell into amother so that signal proteins and electrical impulses can move between cells
    • *only in plant cells*
  29. Gap Junctions
    • channels from one cell to another that allow ions, sugars, amino acids to pass through. Gap junctions are important for communication between cells
    • *only animal cells*
  30. Central Vacule
    • *only plant cells*
    • 1) Give shape to the cell
    • 2) Stores water
    • 3) Stores and breaks down waste
    • 4) Can contain chemical defenses (milkweed plant)
  31. Sequestered
    orgaisms that take a part of amother organism and make it part of themselves to protect them (Sea Slugs & Monarch Butterflies)
  32. Mimicry
    • orgaisms that look like bad things will be protected (Monarch Butterfly)
    • Batesian mimicry - Model & Mimic - one is good to eat..one is bad
    • Mullerian mimicry - both are bad tasting
  33. Aposematic Coloration
    bright colors to warn preditors to stay away
  34. Curare
    poison from frogs - used for dart guns - we use for anastesia

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