BI0005 - Lectures 8+9 - Nutrition and Diet

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BI0005 - Lectures 8+9 - Nutrition and Diet
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2014-05-07 11:42:53
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BI0005 Lectures Nutrition Diet
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BI0005 - Lectures 8+9 - Nutrition and Diet
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  1. What are 6 essential components of a healthy diet?
    • • Carbohydrates
    • • Protein
    • • Lipids
    • • Vitamins
    • • Minerals
    • • Water
  2. What are Carbohydrates?
    • Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, non-Starch Polysaccharides

    • • Energy – easily available
    •    – Glycolysis, TCA, electron transport chain

    • Amino Acid synthesis

    • Lipid metabolism

    • Glycogen

    • High carbohydrate diets may be deficient in other nutrients
  3. What are proteins?
    • 20 amino acids required

    • Essential amino acids cannot be synthesised

    • • Non-Essential can be synthesized if sufficient ?  – Adult – 8 essential
    •  – Conditionally essential - 9
    •       • (e.g. Histidine + Arginine)

    • Excess deaminated – NH3 → ?

    • Carbohydrate – like – energy - ATP

    • Important fuel source – muscle protein

    • Animal derived protein usually higher quality than plant derived
  4. What are lipids?
    • High energy yield

    • Essential FA’s cannot be synthesised

    • Precursors for lots of things – prostaglandins

    • Excess FA’s stored
  5. What is Cholesterol?
    • Essential

    • Used to transport lipids

    • • Precursor for other molecules
    •    – Testosterone, ? Salts, Vitamin ?

    • Raised cholesterol associated with heart disease

    • • Familial hypercholesterolaemia
    •    – 1 in 500
    •    – CHD 20 years early, >50% mortality before 60 yrs.
  6. What is Vitamin E?
    Vegetable oils

    • • Vitamin E
    • – Antioxidant
    • – Oxidative damage
    • – Immune development
  7. What is Vitamin K?
    Green vegetables

    • • Vitamin K
    • – Coagulation factor
    • – Essential for synthesis of prothrombin
    • – Inactive precursor of thrombin
    • – Thrombin is an enzyme
    • – Blood clot formation
  8. Vitamin B3
    Nuts, grains

    • • Vitamin B3
    •    – Nicotinamide
    •    – NAD, NADP
    •    – Hydrogen transfer
    •    – ? carriers
    •    – Oxidative phospohorylation
  9. Folic Acid needs?
    • – 0.4mg while trying to conceive
    • – Continue for 1st 12x weeks of pregnancy
  10. 4 Important Minerals?
    • Iron • Calcium • Phosphorus • Iodine
  11. Phosphorus?
    Dairy products, meats, grains

    • • Phosphorous
    •    – More known functions than any other mineral
    •    – Skeleton and teeth – 85%
    •    – Phospholipids
    •    – Phosphoproteins
    •    – ATP
    •    – Widespread deficiency in grazing animals
    •    – Phosphorous deficient soils occur around the world
  12. Iodine?
    Seafood, Dairy products

    • • Iodine
    • – Synthesis of thyroid hormones
    • – T3 – triiodothyronine
    • – T4 – Thyroxine
    • – Accelerate metabolic reactions
    • – Increase metabolic rate
    • – Concentration in plant dependent on soil
  13. Water?
    • • Solvent of life
    •   – Necessary medium for metabolism/physiology

    • • 1.5-3 litres per day
    •   – More required under specific circumstances

    • • No requirement for 8 litres unless
    •    – Very hot – High intensity exercise

    • Can be toxic
  14. Balanced diets?
    • Provides the nutrients required in the correct proportions in a digestible form

    • • Recommended energy intake
    • – Men = ? MJ (2,500 Kcal); BMR = 1.7 MJ
    • – Women = ? MJ (2,000 Kcal), BMR = 5.4 MJ

    • Nutrition tables give detailed daily requirements

    • • Derived from experimental observation
    •    – Remove and observe
    •    – reintroduce
  15. NHS Guidelines for balanced diet?
    • 1/3 starch based foods (NSP)

    • • 1/3 fruit and veg (NSP)
    •    – Different types

    • • Remaining 1/3
    •    – Meat & Dairy and oily fish

    Salt (6g) fat (20-30g) and sugar should be the smallest component of a balanced diet

    • ? litres if water (6-8 glasses)
  16. Allergies and intolerance?
    • • Allergy
    • – Immune response
    • – Usually fast acting
    • – Acute

    • • Intollerance
    • – May not produce immune response
    • – Slow acting
    • – Chronic

    • Remove and reintroduce
  17. What are metabolic syndromes?
    • Wide range of metabolic diseases

    • Associated with obesity

    • Type II diabetes

    • Fatty Liver disease

    • Arthrosclerosis

    • Chronic inflammatory disease
  18. What are useful diet strategies?
    • • Evidence Based
    •  – Reduction of ?Kcal per day
    •  – Slow and sustained weight loss
    •  – Diet + exercise better than one alone
    •   – Maintain a balanced diet

    • • More extreme methods use in some cases
    • • The ketogenic diet
    •    – Protein deficiency ? appetite
    • • -10% makes a significant difference

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