FSHD 377 Exam 3

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jcohen3
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273635
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FSHD 377 Exam 3
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2014-05-07 16:53:49
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Material for exam 3
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  1. Secondary School
    • Middle School
    • Junior School
    • High School
  2. Middle School vs. Junior School
    • Junior School
    • early 20th century 
    • 7th, 8th, 9th
    • Middle School
    • 7th, 8th (5th and 6th --> 1 or 2 years younger)
    • replaced Junior School
  3. School Size
    • -BAD     
    • -Students are LESS engaged <400 students 
    • -Bigger school= More class variety
    • -Bigger school = More extracurricular activities 
    • -More students= 1/2 participation
    • -LESS participants, MORE observers
    • -average student FADES out              
    • -20-40 person class--> NO difference
  4. Class Size
    • -BETTER
    • -performance and interest IMPROVE
    • -HIGHER chance to get involved in school
    • -feel important
    • -600-900 students --> ideal
    • -Best until 3rd grade
  5. Tracking
    • -separating students in different levels of classes due to ABILITY 
    • -inclusive tracking- including MOST people in high track 
    • -exclusive tracking- includes select FEW people in high track
    • -meritocratic tracking- put students in tracks that MATCH ability
    • -Cons:
    • -1a)HIGH track =BETTER education
    • -1b)LOW track= WORSE education
    • -2)Divides smart kids and dumb kids
    • -3) Assign poor minorities to LOW tracks under assumption
  6. Classroom Climate Effects
    • -BETTER at schools that are RESPONSIVE and DEMANDING 
    • -Structured classrooms that demand participation
    • -Lesson plans =GOOD
    • -Cooperation > competition
    • -Supportive but firm TEACHERS:
    • --Less delinquency
    • --Higher scores
    • --Higher attendance
    • --Stronger bond with school
    • --Positive achievement motives
    • --Fewer problems
    • --Supportive friendships
    • -Achievement,behavior, psychological   development = influences on climate
  7. Characteristics of Good Schools (5)
    • 1) Emphasize intellectual ACTIVITIES
    • 2) Committed teachers who are given autonomy (INDEPENDENCE)
    • 3) Integrated (UNITED) into their community
    • 4) High proportions of classrooms where students PARTICIPATE
    • 5) Teachers who are TRAINED in teaching adolescents
  8. Higher SES students and disadvantaged
    students during Summer
    • -Rates between LOW and HIGH SES students = DURING school
    • -SUMMER = low SES goes DOWN
    • -Summer School makes its EVEN again
  9. Meaning of Schools for Adolescents
    • -Contribute to INTELLIGENCE
    • -Lack of encouragement for creativity, independence, and self-reliance = NO psychosocial development
  10. High School effects on College & Non College
    • -College Bound = HIGH track
    • -Non College Bound= LOW track
  11. Achievement Issue
    • -Adolescents can understand LONG-TERM implications of their educational and career decisions 
    • -Schools gear education towards occupation
  12. Importance of Achievement and Ability Belief
    • -Motives--> PULL towards achievement
    • -Fear of failure --> REPEL them from achievement
  13. Fear of Failure
    • -Feeling of anxiety during test 
    • -Interfere with successful performance
    • -Easy task = low anxiety =boring
    • -Moderate task = moderate anxiety =improve performance
    • -Hard task (learning something new) =high anxiety =failure
    • -Strong achievement + low
    • fear of failure = achievement
    • -Weak achievement + high
    • fear of failure = unsuccessful
    • -Underachievers 
    • --Grades are LOWER than intellectual abilities
  14. Self-Handicapping
    • Is a method to SELF-PROTECT oneself such as:
    • --Joking around in class
    • --Procrastinating 
    • --Incomplete homework
    • --Partying before an exam 
    • -Boys: Self-Handicap
    • --lack of effort
    • -Girls Self-Handicap
    • --Emotional problems
  15. Beliefs About Intelligence
    • 1) Intelligence is malleable or fixed
    • -FIXED:
    • --MORE oriented towards performance
    • --Work hard and seek out challenges
    • -MALEABLE
    • --Intrinsically motived
    • --Satisfaction from mastering the material
    • -- Less effected by confidence level
    • --LESS concerned about performance
    • --Motivated by learning NOT performing
    • 2) Oriented towards mastery or performance achievement
    • 3) Confident about abilities
    • --Self-efficacy-individual has some control lover their lives
  16. Importance of Context
    • -When teachers stress grades rather than mastering the material -->you do WORSE
    • --More extrinsically motivated
    • --More insecure about their abilities
    • --More hesitant to challenge themselves
    • --Less likely to ask for help
    • -Performance BasedTeachers cause Students to:
    • -- Feel more alienated
    • --Lower feelings of self-efficacy
    • --More likely to self-handicap 


     
  17. Attributions for Success and Failure
    • Achievement attributions- belief an individual holds about the causes of her or his
    • successes and failures 
    • -Factors that Attribute to Performance:(4)
    • --1) Ability 
    • ---More likely to approach tasks confidently and with self assurance
    • --2) Task difficulty/easiness 
    • ---Unsure of abilities 
    • --3) Luck
    • ---Unsure of abilities 
    • --4) Effort
    • ---More likely to approach tasks confidently and with self assurance
    • -Fail because lack of effort -->try HARDER in future
    • -Fail because bad luck or stupidity--> LESS effort in future
    • Learned helplessness
    • -Belief that an individual is NOT able to influence events through their own efforts or actions
    • --Ex) if child is told that they can NOT do better on the SAT next time they will NOT try as hard
    • -Have overall adjustment problems
  18. Parent Values and Expectations on Achievement
    • -HIGH encourage school success = higher standards =school success
    • -LOW parental encouragement =low standards =unsuccessful
    • -Parents structure home for academic success
    • --Time management
    • -Parental involvement is STONG for Mexicans
    • --Importance of family in their culture
    • -Be involved in school activities -->HELPFUL
    • -Helping with homework -->NOT HELPFUL
    • Authoritative Parenting 
    • -Warm, firm, and fair 
    • -School SUCCESS 
    • -Better performance
    • -Better attendance 
    • -Higher expectations 
    • -Stronger engagement in classrooms
    • Authoritarian Parenting
    • -Punishing, harsh, over controlling
    • -Lower school engagement
    • - Diminish achievement 
    • Permissive Parenting
    • -Higher drop out
  19. Friend Values on Achievement
    • -Encourage success
    • -Meet friends who are on the same academic level as you
  20. Socioeconomic Status and Achievement
    • -Poor students do NOT have Cultural capital
    • --Resources provided within a family through exposure of the adolescent to art, music, literature
    • Positive impact on achievement above parents EDUCATION
    • --School performance is influenced by ENVIRONMENT not GENETICS
    • Middle class
    • -Score HIGHER on academic
    • skills test
    • -MORE years of schooling 
    • Working Class and Lower Class
    • -Earn LOWER grades
    • -Score LOWER on academic skills test
    • -LESS years of schooling 
    • --Poor BLACKS in middle class community work HARDER
    • --Poor BLACKS in low class community DO NOT work HARDER
    • -Middle class adults = higher IQ
    • --Pass on to kids (genetically and environmentally)
    • --Better health care
    • --Better nutrition
  21. Ethnicity and Achievement
    • Blacks are told they are NOT as smart
    • Causes them to do poorer on tests
  22. Dropping Out
    • Type of Drop Outs
    • 1) Quiet drop outs
    • -History is similar to non drop outs
    • -Fade out 
    • 2) Disengaged drop outs
    • -low commitment to school
    • 3) Lower achiever dropouts
    • -Poor school performance
    • 4) Maladjusted dropouts
    • -Behavioral and
    • psychological problems
    • -Dropping out EARLY -->disciplinary PROBLEMS
    • -Dropping out LATE -->want to WORK
  23. Occupational Plans
    • Rewards that a person looks for in a job (7)
    • 1) Extrinsic Reward:
    • -High income
    • 2) Security
    • 3) Intrinsic Rewards
    • -Learn from work
    • 4) Influence
    • -power over others
    • 5) Altruistic Rewards
    • -helping others
    • 6) Social Rewards
    • -working with people you
    • like
    • 7) Leisure
    • -vacation
    • --FRESHMAN of high school
    • ---Extrinsic, altruistic, social rewards
    • --SENIORS in high school
    • ---Intrinsic, job security
  24. Older Leisure
    -Job
  25. Younger Leisure
    • -TV
    • -Music
    • -Internet
    • -Friends
  26. Rise of Adolescents in the Workforce
    • -Need workers who would work PART TIME for LOW wages 
    • -1970s
    • --baby bloomers needed jobs 
    • -Present:
    • -Less teenage workers
    • -High school put on a HEAVIER work load 
    • -Recession had OLDER adults taking TEENAGE jobs
    • -Immigrants take jobs for LOWER salary 
    • -Computer and TV was MORE important
  27. Other Industrialized Workforce
    • New Industrialized Countries:
    • -Leave school EARLY to work and help family
    • -Full time (15-16 years old)
    • Canada:
    • -½ kids hold jobs
    • Australia:
    • ½ students hold jobs
    • Japan:
    • -No students have school jobs
    • Korea:
    • -No students have school jobs
    • France, Italy, Spain:
    • -Rare 
    • GB, Sweden, Netherlands
    • -More common
  28. Impact of Jobs
    • -Steal from work
    • -Lie about hours
    • -Perform delinquent acts
    • -Do NOT save their money
    • Premature affluence
    • -Having more income than one can handle maturely before any serious bills
    • --Teach undesirable lessons about money management
  29. TV Influence
    • SEX:
    • -Sexual content is prevalent
    • -70% of television
    • -Humorous and suggestive comments
    • -Have sex earlier
    • -Expose themselves to more sexual content
    • VIOLENCE:
    • -60% of television
    • DRUGS:
    • -¾ of television 
    • -increase drug influence
  30. Music Influence
    • SEX
    • -Men
    • --aggressive and dominant
    • -Women
    • --objects 
    • VIOLENCE
    • -Increase aggressive thoughts
    • -Does not lead to AGGRESSIVE behavior
    • DRUGS
    • -½ of music videos
  31. Causes of Homelessness(3)
    • 1) Family conflict
    • 2) Residential instability
    • 3) Economic problems
  32. Life Course Persistent Behavior
    • Antisocial and depressive BEFORE adolescence into adulthood
    • -Poor males 
    • -Neglectful families
  33. Adolescent Limited Behavior
    • -Delinquency and violence begin and end DURING adolescence
    • -Poor parental monitoring
    • -Affiliation with antisocial peers
  34. Substance Use
    • -Indians> Hispanics=White >Black and Asians
    • -Americans > immigrants  (1/2 the rate)
    • Frequent drug users
    • -Once as week
    • Hard drug users
    • -Other drugs than tobacco, marijuana, alcohol
    • Infrequent users
    • -Alcohol and weed once a month
    • -Score higher on psychological adjustments
    • Abstain
    • -Nothing 
    • - Score higher on psychological adjustments
  35. Substance Abusers
    Using drugs in a way that causes significant problems at home, school, work, law
  36. Comorbility
    • Person has more than 1 problem at a time
    • 1)Externalizing comorbility:
    • -Acting out with bad behavior
    • 2) Internalizing comorbility:
    • -Depression/anxiety
  37. Psychosocial Problem Theories
    • 3 Problems in Adolescence:
    • 1) Externalizing problems (aggression)
    • 2) Internalizing problems (depression)
    • 3) Substance abuse
    • -Delinquency à Truant (skip school) -->sex, aggression = problem behavior syndrome
    • -Negative Emotionality-->depression, anxiety
  38. Depression and Suicide STATS
    • Females:
    • -3x more likely to CONSIDER suicide
    • Males:
    • -4x more likely to ATTEMPT suicide
    • National
    • -4% CONSIDER
    • -.7% ATTEMPT
    • -2x INDIANS > 2x WHITES > BLACKS
    • -1% of Iraq veterans à 20% commit suicide
    • U of A 
    • -8% CONSIDER
    • -1.4% ATTEMPT
    • -45.1% feel HOPELESS
    • -32.2% feel DEPRESSED
  39. Symptoms of Depression and Suicide
    • -Failing Grades
    • -Self Harming
    • -Substance Abuse
    • -Mental Health Goes Down 
    • -Fighting with Friends
  40. QPR
    • Question
    • -Question their meaning to determine suicide intent or desire
    • Persuade
    • - Persuade the person to accept or seek help
    • Refer
    • -Refer the person to appropriate resources
  41. Diversion Methods for Crime (Teen Court)
    • Offenses:          
    • -Possession of drug
    • -Shoplifting
    • -Assault
    • -Misconduct with weapon
    • Diversion
    • -Sentence of constructed consequences
    • -Education workshops
    • -Service learning activities
    • -Letters of apology
    • -Future jury duty

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