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What is the American Revolution?
After the signing of the Declaration of Independence, the British colonists fought to win independence from Great Britain
How long did the American Revolution war (Revolutionary War) last? Did the British and Americans think it would last that long?
What 2 countries did the Patriots win the friendship of?
France and Spain
What group of British colonists fought for independence? (patriots or loyalists)
Who was the leader of the Patriots in war against the redcoats (British)?
Many battles are fought in the first 3 years of war.....name two that the Patriots won and one that they lost.
- Trenton - won
- Saratoga - won
Philidelphia - lost
What is the last major battle of the Revolutionary War? THE COLONISTS WON!! What date did the British (Cornwallis) surrender to George Washington?
- Battle of Yorktown, Virginia
- British surrender on Oct 19, 1781
The patriot army was also called what?
Name some of the hardships the Continental Army (patriots, british colonists) suffered during the war.
- Men left their homes to fight
- Women had to keep farms running
What were some of the jobs that colonists did to support the army that often made the difference between victory and defeat?
- Cooks and servants
- sewed clothes
- nursed the wounded
Tell the strengths and weaknesses of the British army (Redcoats).
Strengths - most powerful navy, well trained and highly disciplined soldiers, had money to hire German mercenaries
Weaknesses - the war was not popular in Great Britain because they didn't want to pay the taxes needed to fight the war, it was slow and costly for Britain to fight the war a thousand miles away across the Atlantic Ocean
In August 1776, the British captured Long Island near New York City by hiring who?
German mercenaries called Hessians (they came from the German state of Hesse-Kassel)
What is a mercenary?
a soldier hired/paid to fight for another country
Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Patriot/Continental Army (British colonists).
Strengths - the colonists were defending their homes so that have them will to keep fighting, the colonists knew the land better and used that advantage to plan attacks, they had a strong leader in George Washington
Weaknesses - did not have an army or navy, getting men to serve in the army was difficult, most colonists preferred to be volunteers in local militias, keeping soldiers was difficult - many quit because they often went without pay, food, uniforms, and weapons
When and where was George Washington born?
1732 Westmoreland County, Virginia
Were George Washington's parents wealthy?
No, but they were landowners in Virginia
What subject was George Washington good at in school? Did he go to college?
Math and no, he did not go to college
What was George Washington's first job? How old was he?
A surveyor, age 16
What is a surveyor?
A person who measures land
How did being a surveyor help George Washington?
it paid well and he was able to buy land
When George Washington was young, what militia did he join?
What made George Washington angry during his time in the militia that made him leave in protest? What made him return?
Colonists were paid less to fight and his rank was reduced during the French and Indian wars
The governor of Virginia restored his original rank so he returned
What was George Washington elected to? Who did he meet?
House of Burgesses - he met Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry - they joined colonial protests against the British
In 1759, Washington retired from military to do what? Washington was the most famous American in the military when he retired
Who did he marry?
Manage his land and he married Martha Custis (a wealthy widow)
Where did George and Martha live?
Mount Vernon - the plantation he owned on the Potomac River in Virginia
Did Martha Washington support the patriots? How did she help?
She helped George with his paperwork and sewed socks and cooked soup for soldiers
Did women colonists sometimes fight in battle?
Yes - when their husbands were wounded or killed
What did colonist Mary Ludwig Hays do? What was her nickname?
She carried water for the soldiers in the battle of Monmouth - nickname was Molly Pitcher
What did colonist Margaret Corbin do?
After her husband died in the Fort Washington attack, she took over his cannon and fought the British until she was wounded
What did Deborah Sampson do?
Disguised herself as a man and fought as a soldier
What did Ester DeBerdt Reed do? What association did she form?
Formed a committee of women to go door to door asking women to donate money for the soldiers
She formed the Ladies Association - the first women's organization in North America
Did colonists want enslaved Africans to serve in the Patriot army at first?
No - they were afraid they might rebel if given guns
Did George Washington own slaves?
Yes - Martha's family gave them to him
Washington eventually changed his mind about allowing enslaved Africans to join the military - TRUE OR FALSE
What lead to the end (abolishment) of slavery?
Many states didn't think it was right to keep enslaving Africans when they were willing to fight and die for freedom of Americans
What was the first state to end (abolish) slavery?
States like Virginia freed enslaved Africans if they fought with the Patriots - TRUE OR FALSE
What was a tactic Washington used to defeat the British?
What did Patriot spies do?
- used code numbers instead of names
- sent coded messages
- risked death if caught
What was one of the Patriot spy rings called? Who lead it? What did he do?
- Mulligan spy ring
- Haym Salomon lead it - he spoke several languages and urged the Germans to leave the British Army - he was caught by the British but escaped
What else did Haym Salomon do to help the Patriot/Continental army?
He raised money for them and gave his own money to them - he died penniless
The revolutionary war began the process of ending slavery, but it took another _______ years to completely end slavery in America.
Did George Washington release his own slaves at the end of the war?
Who was Nathan Hale?
21-year old Patriot spy in New York - he drew plans of troop positions but was captured and killed
Who said - "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country"?
In the winter of 1776, why did George almost give up the war?
the harsh winter and shortage of food and ammunition
Who was the British general in 1776 in the war in the North?
What two states did the British first gain control of?
New York and New Jersey
Battle of Trenton:
What state did it take place in?
George Washington planned a surprise attack on the British (Hessians) on what day?
What river did the patriots cross?
How many Hessians did Washington and his army capture
- Trenton, New Jersey
- Christmas Day, 12-25-1776
- Delaware River
- 900 prisoners
What happened a week after the Battle of Trenton?
The Patriots took Princeton from the British
After the Patriots gained Trenton and Princeton, they had control back over almost all of what state?
With victories in Trenton and Princeton, Washington was hopeful of the future and began rebuilding his army in Morristown. TRUE OR FALSE
What country gave Washington and his army weapons in 1977?
Philadelphia was the Patriot's capital. TRUE OR FALSE
Describe the battle of Philadelphia.
British general Howe wanted to take over control of Philadelphia. Washington placed his troops between British forces and Philadelphia as the British forces marched toward Chesepeake Bay. In a surprise move, the British army attacked the Continental army from behind and the Patriots retreated and the British forces took control of Philadelphia on 9-26-1777
Where did the Continental Congress go to after Philadelphia was taken over by the British forces?
Describe the Victory at Saratoga (New York)
British general John Burgoyne wanted to capture the Hudson River Valley (New York) - British troops stationed in Canada and marched south toward New York - Patriots attacked them along the way
Thaddeus Kosciuszko - a polish engineer with the Americans, helped the Americans prepare to attack the british
Americans fortified an area called Freeman's Farm
By the time British soldiers reached Saratoga, they were outnumbered by the Americans
British lost the first battle at Saratoga (first battle of Freeman's Farm)
What was the Second Battle of Freeman's Farm?
The British (general Burgoyne) did not retreat to Canada after losing the first battle at Freeman's farm
The British attacked again in Saratoga, NY
The general that lead the Patriots was Benedict Arnold - he won the second battle of Freeman's farm for the Patriots
Burgoyne and the British surrendered and the Patriots took 6000 British prisoners and a large supply of arms
Why was the victory at Saratoga a turning point for the Patriots?
It showed that Americans could defeat a large British army and it convinced France to support the Americans by signing the Treaty of Alliance
What was the Treaty of Alliance?
France signed it to show support for the Americans - France sent troops to help fight with Americans
Who was Marquis de Lafayette?
- a wealthy Frenchman
- his father died fighting the British
- in july 1977, age 19, Marquis wrote to John Hancock
- He asked to serve in the war with the Patriots at his own expense as a volunteer
- Hancock made Lafeyette a general and Lafeyette and Washington became like father and son
What was Valley Forge?
Where Washington took the Continental Army after British took over Philadelphia. Valley Forge was near Philadelphia.
What condition was the Continental Army in at Valley Forge?
Bad - supplies were low, ate firecakes (flour and water cooked over fire), many died of disease, many soldiers left and went home, Martha Washington helped nurse the sick, soldiers had no shoes
Who arrived at Valley Forge to help train the Patriot soldiers and turn them into a powerful army?
Friedrich von Steuben - a soldier from Germany
What is the name of the Patriot song?
What did Patriot George Rogers Clark do?
drove British out of the Ohio River Valley and captured Fort Vincennes (took a couple of efforts though) - he tricked the British by having his men yell and scream as they approached the British to make it seem they had a huge army
Were there many American ships in the war?
No, but there was one
What was the name of Patriot Captain John Paul Jones battleship? What was the name of the British battleship?
- Bonhomme Richard - American ship
- Serapis - British ship
Who said from his American ship "I have not yet begun to fight"
Captain John Paul Jones
Did the British ship or American ship win?
American - the British ship (Serapis) surrendered
Who was considered "the very genius of war" after his successes at Fort Ticonderoga and Saratoga?
Benedict Arnold - accused of spending too much money though
Washington gave Benedict Arnold command of what?
West Point, a key fort in NY
Benedict Arnold ended up being a traitor...how?
He planned to give the British details about West Point's defenses - when the Americans found out, Arnold escaped and joined the British army
Today when someone uses the phrase "Benedict Arnold" they mean what?
That someone is a traitor
In 1779, what country joined to fight with the Patriots? How did they help?
- They helped the Americans end trade with Britain
- Spain sent money and supplies to keep the British from moving west
After losing the battle of Saratoga, the British tried to take control of the ___________.
In 1780, what happened in the South.
British forces went to South Carolina and took over almost the whole southern patriot army
What did Captains Francis Marion (swamp fox) and Nathanael Greene do for the patriot army in the south?
Lead them in battle against the British in the south - not very successful
Who was the British commander in the battles in the south?
What happened at Guilford Court House?
bloody exchange between British/Cornwallis army and Patriot/Greene army - british won but their army was greatly weakened
Who was James Armistead?
Cornwallis/British general's servant who turned on him and was spying on Cornwallis for the Americans - he helped the Americans to finally defeat the British with the information he gave the Americans
What did John Adams say about the American Revolution?
There had been two revolutions - one was the war itself and the other was in the minds and hearts of the people