Chapter 25: The Urinary System

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tad.ramage
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273654
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Chapter 25: The Urinary System
Updated:
2014-05-07 18:22:20
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nutrition
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Anatomy and Physiology
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urinary system
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  1. Maintain Homeostasis by:
    • Regulating water balance and concentration of solutes
    • Ensuring acid-base solute
    • Excreting metabolic waste
    • Production of erythropoietin (hormone that changes stem cells to red blood cells )and renin
    • Converting Vitamin D to active form
  2. Urinary System
    • Kidneys
    • Ureters
    • Bladder
    • Urethra
  3. Structure of Kidneys
    • 3 layers of supportive tissue
    • Renal fascia = connective tissue "anchors" kidney
    • Perirenal fat capsule = cushion kidney
    • Fibrous capsule = prevents infections from surrounding area

    Peritoneum - upper abdominal cavity
  4. Homeostasis Imbalance
    • Renal ptosis = lack of fatty tissue supporting kidney causes it to drop
    • Kink in ureter causes urine to back up and increase pressure on kidney tissues
    • Hydronephrosis = "water in the kidney" can lead to necrosis (tissue death) and renal failure
    • Pyelitis = infection of renal pelvis and calyces
    • Pyelonephritis = infection or inflammation of entire kidney
    • Usually caused by fecal bacteria spread from anal region (improper wiping techniques, sexual intercourse)
    • Kidney swells, abcesses form, pelvis fills with puss
    • Untreated infections may cause severe damage
    • Treat with antibiotics
  5. Gross Anatomy of Kidney
    • Fibrous capsule - outside surface
    • Cortex - outer inside
    • Medulla - pyramid
    • Minor calyx - opening of pyramids
    • Major calyx - central opening
    • Pelvis - leads into ureter
    • Ureter - going out of kidney
  6. Blood flow through the kidney
    • aorta - renal artery - (segmental artery) - arcuate artery - cortical radiate artery
    • afferent arteriole - glomerulus (capillaries) - efferent arteriole
    • Peritubular capillaries or vasa recta
    • Cortical radiate vein - arcuate vein - interlobar vein - renal vein - inferior vena cava
  7. Nephrons: Functional Unit of Kidney
    • Renal corpuscle/glomerulus: fed and drained by afferent and efferent arterioles - filtration unit
    • Renal tubule (~3 cm) long): begins in cortex, passes into medulla - 3 parts - reabsorb water and solutes needed by the body
  8. Urine Formation Step 1: Glomerular Filtration
    • Passive process caused by hydrostatic pressure
    • Porous membrane between blood and interior of glomerular capsule
    • Allows water and small solutes to cross, plasma proteins are too big and do not cross
    • Homeostatic Imbalace: Protein in urine indicates a problem with the membrane - anuria = low urinary output (indicates glomerular blood pressure too low to allow for filtration)
  9. Urinary Formation Step 2: Tubular Reabsorption
    • Begins as soon as filtrate enter the proximal tubules
    • Proximal Convoluted Tubule - 
    • Nephron Loop - 
    • Distal Convoluted Tubule - 
    • Collecting Duct - urine
  10. Urine Formation Step 3: Tubular Secretion
    • Excreted urine contains both filtered and secreted substances
    • Tubular secretion is important for: disposing of substances bound to proteins that cannot be filtered (drugs and metabolites) - (controlling blood pH)
  11. Non-lecture, but know for test
    • Physical characteristics of urine p 978-979
    • Urine transport, storage and elimination p 979-982: structures/functions - homeostatic imbalances

    Specific Gravity - only water is pure (H2O 1.000)

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