Final Test Study Guide

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Final Test Study Guide
2014-05-08 16:32:55
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  1. the sun is a steady star and not a _____ star like Mira.
  2. how many earth diameters would it take to equal the diameter of the sun?
  3. water must be in the ____ state for life to exist.
  4. the sun is about ____ miles away from the earth.
    93 million
  5. the sun is made mostly of the elements ______ and _____
    hydrogen, helium
  6. heat and light travel through space by _____
  7. dark spots on the sun are called _______, and their number increases and decreases in a cycle of about _______ years.
    sunspots, 11
  8. the sun produces its energy as particles of _______ unite to form _____
    hydrogen, helium
  9. the best displays of aurora borealis, also called northern lights, occur during times of (many, few) sunspots
    northern lights, many
  10. the moon goes through one cycle of it's _______, or different shapes, in ______ days
    phases, 29 1/2
  11. the gravity of the moon causes the ____ of the ocean.
  12. the moon is unsuitable for life because it has no ____ or _______ and because its temperature is both too ____ and ______.
    air, water, hot, cold
  13. a lunar eclipse occurs when the shadow of the ____ falls on the ______
    earth, moon
  14. a solar eclipse occurs when the shadow of the ____ falls on the ____
    moon, earth
  15. a solar eclipse is total when the size of the moon appears (equal to, smaller than) the size of the sun
    equal to
  16. a solar eclipse is annular when the size of the moon appears (equal to, smaller than) the size of the sun
    smaller than
  17. the orbits of the planets, and especially those of the comets, are in the shape of a ( a circle, an egg, an ellipse )
    an ellipse
  18. the planets located in side the planets orbits are called ____ planets
  19. the close a planet is to the sun, the (more slowly, more swiftly) it travels and the (shorter,longer) its year is
    more swiftly, shorter
  20. mercury is hot on one side and cold on the other because it rotates (slowly, swiftly)
  21. the atmosphere of Venus is mostly ____ _____, and it contains clouds of ____ ______
    carbon dioxide, sulfuric acid
  22. Venus rotates _______ on its axis, which cannot be explained by evolution
  23. the axis of Mars is ____, which is what causes it to have ____ as the earth does
    tilted, seasons
  24. between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter are thousandas of small bodies called _____
  25. sometimes the superior planets appear to move backward in relation to the stars. this is called ____ motion
  26. four of jupiter's ____ can be seen with a small telescope
  27. Saturn is surrounded by beautiful ____ that look like a disk of gold
  28. the axis of Uranus is almost ( level, verticle ) in relation to its orbit
  29. the location of Neptune was predicted by the use of ________
  30. the earth's axis is tilted ______ degrees, and this cauuses the ___ of the earth
    23 1/2, seasons
  31. to be at a place that has sunshine at midnight, you would need to go north of the ____ ____ or south of the ____ _____
    arctic circle, antarctic circle
  32. water is called H2O because each molecules has two atoms of ____ and one atom of ______
    hydrogen, oxygen
  33. water moves upward through soil by a process called ____ ______
    capillary action
  34. four-fifths of the air is _____, and one fith is ______
    nitrogen, oxygen
  35. the atmosphere protects the earth from most _____, which are speeding rocks from outer space
  36. almost what fraction of the earth is covered with water?
    three fourths
  37. the oceans make the surrounding land (warmer, colder) in winter and (warmer, colder) in summer
    warmer, colder
  38. a _____ is a movement of ocean water from one place to another
  39. in the water cycle, water falls from clouds as _____, streams and rivers carry it to the _____, and then it ______ to form clouds again.
    rain, ocean, evaporates
  40. in the oxygen cycle, people and animals breathe out ____ _____, which plants use, and plants give off _____, which people and animals breathe
    carbon dioxide, oxygen
  41. plants called _____ build up nitrogen compounds in the soil through a process called _____ ________
    legume, nitrogen fixation
  42. in the process called ____, plants use ___ and ___ ____ in the presence of sunlight to make sugar
    photosynthesis, water, carbon dioxide
  43. in many plants, sugar is changed to _____ and stored in some part of the plant
  44. dead plant materials improve the soil by decaying to form ______
  45. a farmer may spread ____ to increase the nutrients of the soil, or he may spread ____ to improve the pH
    fertilizer, lime
  46. feeds mostly on plants is (carnivorous, herbivorous, omnivorous)
  47. an animal that kills and eats other animals is (carnivorous, herbivorous, omnivorous)
  48. an animal that feeds on plants and other animals is (carnivorous, herbivorous, omnivorous)
  49. in the ___ ____, a small animal is eaten by a larger animal, and the larger animal is eaten by a still larger animal
    food chain
  50. carnivorous and herbivorous animals control each others populations, and this produces a ___ of _____
    balance of life
  51. the study of living things in relation of their surroundings is called ______
  52. the law of conservation of energy cannot be ____ or _____
    created, destroyed
  53. the law of thermodynamics states that energy always moves from a ___ level to a ____ level
    higher, lower
  54. energy in motion is (kinetic, potential) energy
  55. stored energy is (kinetic, potential) energy
  56. three sources of free energy are the ____, falling ____, and wind
    sun, water, wind
  57. what three things are needed for a gasoline engine to run?
    fuel, air and spark
  58. name in order the four strokes or a gasoline engine
    intake , compression , power , exhaust
  59. three things needed for any transportation are ____, _____, and _____
    support, propulsion, and control
  60. write words to complete this sentence: electricity flows in a wire when the wire passes near a magnet and cuts the invisible.......
    lines of magnetic force
  61. electrical pressure is measured in ___
  62. a circuit is ____ if it forms a complete path for electricity, and _______ if it does not
    closed, open
  63. a ______ ______ protects a circuit from too much electrical current
    circuit breaker
  64. in an electric motor, a moving electromagnet called the ____ turns as it is attracted or repelled by the ____ ____
    armature, field magnets
  65. what are the two laws of magnetism by which all electric motors operate?
    like poles repel, unlike poles attract
  66. in a light bulb, the ___ glows white hot and produces light
  67. in a telephone, the ___ changes the sound of a speakers voice into a varying electrical current
  68. in a telephone, the ___ changes the varying current into a sound like the speakers voice
  69. for greater surface area, the lungs have millions of small ____, and the small intestine has millions of _____
    sacs, villi
  70. blood cells called ____ ____ carry oxygen, and blood cells called _____ _____ fight germs
    red corpuscles, white corpuscles
  71. name the four important body systems that  you studied in unit 7
    • sensory system,
    • respiratory system,
    • digestive system,
    • circulatory system,