CH 8 Cognitive Views of Learning

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  1. Elements of Cognitive Perspective (pp. 282-284)

    Contrast cognitive and behavioral views of learning in terms of what is learned and the role of reinforcement
    • changes in knolwedge-->changes in behavior
    • behavioral view-->new behavior i slearned
    • reinforcement is important in learning, but for different reasons
    • strict behaviorist-->reinforcement strengthens responses
    • Cognitive theorists-->see reinforcement as a source of feedback-->source of information
  2. Elements of Cognitive Perspective (pp. 282-284)
    How does knowledge affect learning?
    • knowledge individual brings to the learning situation
    • what we know affects what we pay attention to, perceive, learn, remember, forget
  3. Elements of Cognitive Perspective (pp. 282-284)
    What is the brains role in cognition?
    • brain impact and be impacted by learning
    • research suggests that learning changes communication among neurons
    • changes allow integration of past and present experiences by age 7
  4. Cognitive Views of Memory (p. 284-296)
    Describe the path from sensory input to recognizing objects
    • 1st phase--feature analysis or bottom-up processing-->assembled into a meaningful pattern.
    • Gestalt principles are on explanation for how features are organized into patterns
    • Recognize patterns rapidly (use what we already know), information from the context, and our knoweldge of prototypes or best examples
  5. Cognitive Views of Memory (p. 284-296)
    What is working memory?
    Short term storage in the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad and processing in the episodic buffer, guided by the central executive--workbench of conscious of thought.

    Keep info activated in working memory for longer than 20 seconds, people use maintenance rehersal and elaborative rehearsal

    Elaborative rehearsal helps move new info to long term memory.

    Limited capacity of working memory

    Individual differences in working memory

    working memory span is related to performance on tasks

    higher level of thinking IQ and SAT
  6. Cognitive Views of Memory (p. 284-296)
    What is cognitive load and how does it impact information processing
    • volume of cognitive resources
    • includes
    • perception
    • attention and memory
    • necessary to perform a task

    ignoring irrelevant stiumuli

    cognitive load is high, it can decrease/inhitib ability to perform
  7. Long-Term Memory (p. 296-307)
    Compare declarative, procedural, and self-regulatory knowledge
    Declarative knowledge=can be declared in words or symbols 

    Procedural knowledge=know how to do, must be demonstrated

    Self-regulatory=knowing when and why to apply declarative and procedural knowledge
  8. Long-Term Memory (p. 296-307)
    How is information represented in long-term memory, and what role do schemas play?
    Memories can be explicit (semantic or episodic) or implicit (procedural, classical conditioning, or priming).

    info stored in propositional networks, images, concepts, and schemas
  9. Long-Term Memory (p. 296-307)
    What learning processes improve long-term memory
    integrate new material with knowledge already stored in long term using elaboration, organization, imagery, and context

    dual coding theory suggests that info coded both verbally and visually is easier to remember

    pictures and words help learn and do not overload working memeory
  10. Long-Term Memory (p. 296-307)
    Why do we forget?
    info lost from working memory disappears, but info in long term may be available if given the right cues.

    info lost from long term due to time decay and interference (newer memories)
  11. Becoming Knowledgeable: Some Basic Principles (p. 307-312)
    Describe three ways to develop declarative knowledge
    • understand and use new info
    • make info meaningful
    • Mnemonics are memorization aids
    • Rote memorization can best be supported by part learning and distributed practice
  12. Becoming Knowledgeable: Some Basic Principles (p. 307-312)
    Describe some methods for developing procedural knowledge
    automated basic skills and domain-specific strategies--two types of procedural knowledge--learned different ways

    3 stages in automated basic skills--cognitive, associative, and autonomous

    Prerequisite knowledge and practice with feedback help students move through stages

    Domain-specific strategies are consciously applied skills of organizing thoughts and actions to reach a goal.  Provide opportunities for practice and application in many situations
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CH 8 Cognitive Views of Learning
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