Exercise 43: Gametogenesis

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lonelygirl
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273726
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Exercise 43: Gametogenesis
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2014-05-08 02:53:37
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Biology 103A
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  1. diploid or 2n chromosomal number
    denoting cells having two of each chromosome or twice the number of chromosomes that are present in sperm or ova
  2. homologous chromosomes
    the matching pairs of chromosomes in a diploid cell
  3. haploid or n chromosomal number
    a cell that has one of each chromosome type and therefore half the number of chromosomes present in most other body cells
  4. zygote
    a fertilized egg cell formed by the union of a sperm cell and an ovum
  5. mitosis
    the process of cell division that results in two identical daughter cells, containing the same number of chromosomes, to produce the multicellular human body
  6. gametogenesis
    the process of gamete formation
  7. meiosis
    a specialized type of cell division by which gametes or haploid sex cells are formed, reduces the number of chromosomes by half
  8. synapsis
    pairing of homologous chromosomes during the first meiotic division
  9. tetrads
    little groups of four chromatids formed by synapsis
  10. crossovers or chiasmata
    allow maternal and paternal chromosomes to exchange genetic material
  11. spermatogenesis
    the process of sperm (male gamete) formation
  12. spermatogonia
    the cells from which sperm cells arise, divide by mitosis
  13. primary spermatocyte
    divide by meiosis to produce two secondary spermatocytes
  14. spermatids
    haploid cells that are the actual product of meiosis
  15. spermiogenesis
    the maturational changes that transform spermatids into spermatozoa
  16. sperm
    male gamete
  17. sustentocyte, or Sertoli cell
    specialized cells within the testes that supply nutrients to developing spermatozoa
  18. interstitial endocrine cells
    cells located in the loose connective tissue surrounding the seminiferous tubules; they produce androgens (most importantly testosterone), which are secreted into the surrounding interstitial fluid
  19. acrosome
    contains enzymes necessary for penetration of the egg
  20. follicle cells
    one or more layers of smaller cells encase follicle within an ovary
  21. granulosa cells
    cuboidal cells that form a barrier around developing oocyte follicles within the ovary
  22. oogenesis
    process of ovum (female gamete) formation
  23. oogonia
    called oogenesis begins with primitive stem cells, located in the ovarian cortices of the developing female fetus
  24. primordial follicles
    consists of an oocyte surrounded by a single layer of squamous granulosa cells
  25. primary oocytes
    a developing egg cell which are in the prophase stage of meiosis I
  26. primary follicle
    one or a few layers of cuboidal cells surrounding the larger central developing ovum
  27. secondary oocyte
    follicles consisting of several layers of granulosa cells surrounding the central developing ovum
  28. first polar body
    complete the second maturation division, producing two more polar bodies
  29. vesicular (antral) follicle
    mature ovarian follicle
  30. ovum
    female gamete
  31. second polar body
    produced by the secondary oocyte
  32. corpus luteum
    a solid glandular structure or a structure containing a scalloped lumen that develops from the ruptured follicle
  33. corpus albicans
    The white fibrous scar tissue in an ovary that results after the involution and regression of the corpus luteum
  34. germinal epithelium
    outermost layer of the ovary
  35. corona radiata
    arrangement of elongated follicle cells around a mature ovum
  36. theca folliculia
    the connective tissue adjacent to the mature follicle forms a capsule that encloses the follicle
  37. uterine cycle, or menstrual cycle
    the rhythmic female reproductive cycle, characterized by changes in hormone levels and physical changes in the uterine lining

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