CH 9 Complex Cognitive Processes

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CH 9 Complex Cognitive Processes
2014-05-08 02:40:38
educational psychology psy 307
psy final
psy final
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  1. Metacognition (p. 318-321)
    What are the three metacognitive skills?
    planning, monitoring, and evaluating
  2. Metacognition (p. 318-321)
    What are some sources of individual differences in metacognition?
    • different paces of development (maturation)
    • biological differences among learners
  3. Metacognition (p. 318-321)
    How can teachers help students develop metacognitive knowledge and skills?
    "look inside" to identify what they do to read, write, or learn better

    Systems such as KWL can help

    Older students, build self reflective questions
  4. Learning Strategies (p. 321-328)
    What are learning strategies?
    special kind of procedural knowledge--knowing how to do something

    mnemonics, skimming to identify organization, writing answers to possible essay questions

    strategies and tactics reflects metacognitive knowledge
  5. Learning Strategies (p. 321-328)
    What key functions do learning strategies play?
    • cognitively engaged--focus attentionĀ 
    • encourage to invest effort, make connections, elaborate, translate, organize, and reorganize to think deeply
    • regulate and monitor own learning
  6. Learning Strategies (p. 321-328)
    Describe some procedures for developing learning strategies
    • expose to different strategies
    • teach conditional knowledge
    • develop motivation
    • provide direct instruction
  7. Learning Strategies (p. 321-328)
    When will students apply learning strategies?
    apply if they are faced with a task that requires good strategies, value doing well, think the effort to apply is worthwhile, and believe they can succeed

    deep processing strategies--students must believe knowledge is complex
  8. Problem Solving (p. 328-339)
    What is problem solving?
    • both general and domain specific
    • problems from well t ill structured
    • steps include identify, set goals, explore solutions, consequences, active, and evaluating the outcome
  9. Problem Solving (p. 328-339)
    Why is the representation stage of problem solving so important?
    • understand both whole problem and elements
    • Schema training improves this
    • different paths depending on what representation and goal are chosen
    • new problem is recognized as a "disguised" version of old problem
    • if activated schema fails-->search for a solution
    • means-ends analysis, working backward, analogical thinking, and verbalization
  10. Problem Solving (p. 328-339)
    Describe factors that can interfere with problem solving
    • Functional fixedness or rigidity (response set)
    • decisions and judgments-->overlook important information because base judgments on what seems representative of a category ( representative heuristic ) or what is available in memory ( availability heuristic ) then pay attention to information that confirms our choices ( confirmation bias ) so that we hold on to beliefs ( belief perseverance )
  11. Problem Solving (p. 328-339)
    What are the differences between expert and novice knowledge in a given area?
    • Expert problem solvers have a rich store of declarative, procedural, and conditional knowledge-->organize knowledge around general principles or patterns that apply to large classes of problems
    • work faster, remember relevant information, and monitor progress better than novices
  12. Creativity and Creative Problem Solving (p. 339-343)
    What is creativity and how is it assessed?
    Process that involves independently restructuring problems to see things in new imaginative ways

    assess originality, fluency, and flexibility

    • originality is determined statistically (response given by fewer than 5 or 10 people of 100)
    • FLuency is the number of differenst responses
    • Different categories of responses measures flexibility
  13. Creativity and Creative Problem Solving (p. 339-343)
    What can teachers do to support creativity in the classroom?
    • Multicultural experiences help flexibility and creativity
    • Teachers accept the unusual, imaginative answers, modeling divergent thinking, using brainstorming, and tolerating dissent
  14. Critical Thinking and Argumentation (p. 343-346)
    What is critical thinking?
    • defining and clarifying the problem
    • making judgments about consistency and adequacy
    • drawing conclusions
  15. Critical Thinking and Argumentation (p. 343-346)
    What is argumentation?
    Process of debating a claim with someone else is supporting your position with evidence and understanding and refuting your opponent's claim.
  16. Teaching for Transfer (p. 346-350)
    What is transfer?
    • When a rule, fact, or skill learned in one situation is applied in another situation
    • Also involves applying knowledge to new problems
  17. Teaching for Transfer (p. 346-350)
    What are some dimensions of transfer?
    • Information can be transferred across a variety of contexts.
    • examples one subject to another, one physical location to another, one function to another
  18. Teaching for Transfer (p. 346-350)
    Distinguish between automatic and mindful, intentional transfer
    Automatic-spontaneous application of well-learned knowledge/skill

    mindful, intentional transfer=reflection and conscious application of abstract knowledge to new situations

    Learning environments should support active constructive learning, self-regulation, collaboration, and awareness of cognitive tools and motivational processes

    Students should deal with problems that have meaning int heir lives