US History

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lilangel0719
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US History
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2014-06-12 02:37:04
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UC Davis 17B
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  1. Big Three
    • - General Motors, Ford & Chrysler
    • - Being the largest automakers in the United States and Canada
    • - Were for a while the largest in the world
  2. Bonus Army
    • - 1932
    • - Popular name of an assemblage of WWI veterans, their families, and affiliated groups
    • - Gathered in Washington, D.C., to demand cash-payment redemption of their service certificates
    • - World War Adjusted Compensation Act of 1924 awarded them bonuses in the form of certificates they could not redeem until 1945
    • - Riots caused Prez. Hoover to order MacArthur to remove the veterans
    • - used tear gas and swords to drive the veterans from Wash., DC.
    • - FDR used the event to further his presidential campaign
  3. Chinese Exclusion Act
    • - Law passed 1882 by Prez. Chester A. Arthur
    • - 1st first time Congress passed law to block immigration by specific ethnic/racial group
    • - Law ushered in a new period defined by skepticism and occasional public hostility toward immigration, especially toward immigrants of non-European backgrounds
    • - Prohibited all Chinese laborers from entering the United States for a period of 10 yrs
    • - Ban Chinese immigrants in US from becoming citizens
    • - Few groups of Chinese allowed to immigrate, but aimed mostly at unskilled laborers.
    • - Provision of the law led to the 1st significant deportation of a particular group of immigrants
  4. Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • - Outlawed discrimination in public accommodations and employment
    • - Ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools
    • - Passed by Lyndon B. Johnson
    •   
  5. Congressional Reconstruction
    • - 1866, Radical Reps got control of Congress so had enough power to cancel Johnson's vetoes
    • - Laws made by Congress which were mainly radical Republicans
    • - Differs 4rm presidential reconstruction cuz made laws forcing the South to suffer for crimes & injustices towards slaves
    • - Believed blacks entitled to same political rights whites
    • - Wanted Confederate leaders punished for roles in Civil War
    • - Passed 1st Reconstruction Act (1867) AKA Reconstruction Act, the bill reduced southern states to than conquered territory cuz divided up into 5 military districts, each governed by a Union general, martial law ruled here & troops dispatched to keep peace & protect former slaves
    • - Congress also declared south states redraft their constitutions, ratify the Fourteenth Amendment, and provide suffrage to blacks to come back to US
  6. Credibility gap
    • - Political term came into wide use during 1960s & 1970s
    • - Frequently used to describe public skepticism about the Lyndon B. Johnson administration's statements/policies on the Vietnam War.- Today generally used to describe almost any "gap" between the reality of a situation and what politicians and government agencies say about it
  7. Deindustrialization
    • - Process of social & economic change caused by the removal/reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry
    • - In US mostly a regional phenomenon, centered on the Rust belt (4rm New England- Great Lakes) since the late 1970s
  8. Election of 1968
    • - Richard Nixon won the presidency as Rep. candidate
    • - He campaigned as champion of the 'silent majority' - ordinary Americans who believed change had gone too far and called for renewed commitment to 'law and order'
    • - Beat out Humphrey who was the Dem. candidate & Wallace as Indpt. party
  9. Election of 1980
    • - Rep. Ronald Reagan Rep. vs. Dem. incumbent Jimmy Carter
    • - Reagan's campaign brought together many 1970s conservatives
    • - He pledged to end stagflation & restore the country's dominant role in the world & its confidence in itself
    • - Only non-incumbent to win so much of electoral college votes: 489/538
  10. Executive Order 9066
    • - Signed by FDR in 1942
    • - Authorized Secretary of War to prescribe certain areas as military zones
    • - Eventually cleared way for deportation of Japanese Americans to internment camps
    • - EO spurred by combo of war hysteria & rxns to Niihau Incident
  11. Four Freedoms
    • - Goals articulated by FDR in 1941
    • - In the Four Freedoms speech AKA1941 State of the Union address, he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy
    • 1. Freedom of speech
    • 2. Freedom of worship
    • 3. Freedom from want
    • 4. Freedom from fear
  12. Fourteenth Amendment
    • - 1868
    • - Grants citizenship to all persons born/ naturalized in US
    • - Forbids states from denying any person his life, liberty or property w/o a due process of law
    • - Meant to protect the civil rights of all Americans regardless of their race/gender
  13. Globalization
    • - Process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture
    • - Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure including rise of the telegraph & the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities
  14. Great Society
    • - Set of domestic political programs launched by Prez. Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964
    • - 2 main goals were social reforms were the elimination of poverty & racial injustice
    • - Johnson 1st used term "Great Society" @ speech at Ohio University, then unveiled the program in greater detail @at University of Michigan
    • - New major spending programs addressed education, medical care, urban problems, & transportation were launched
    • - The Great Society resembled New Deal agenda of FDR
  15. Gulf of Tonkin incident
    • - AKA USS Maddox Incident in 1964
    • - Name given to two separate confrontations w/ N. Vietnam & US in Gulf of Tonkin
    • - Destroyer USS Maddox, while performing a signals intelligence patrol engaged 3 N. Vietnamese Navy torpedo boats
    • - Sea battle resulted, w/ 1 US aircraft was damaged, 3 N. Vietnamese boats damaged, and 4 N. Vietnamese sailors killed and 6 wounded w/ no U.S. casualties
    • - Outcome = passage by Congress of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted Prez. Johnson authority to assist any SE Asian country whose government was considered to be jeopardized by "communist aggression"
    • - Resolution served as Johnson's legal justification for deploying U.S. conventional forces and war against N. Vietnam
  16. Immigration Act of 1965
    • - AKA Hart–Celler Act, abolished the National Origins Formula
    • - Abolished national origins quota system that was American immigration policy since the 1920s, replacing it with a preference system that focused on immigrants' skills and family relationships with citizens/U.S. residents
  17. Immigration Reform and Control Act
    • - AKA the  Simpson-Mazzoli Act in 1986
    • - An Act of Congress which reformed United States immigration law
    • - Required employers to attest to their employees' immigration status
    • - Made it illegal to knowingly hire/recruit illegal immigrants
    • - Legalized certain seasonal agricultural illegal immigrants
    • - Legalized illegal immigrants in US before 1982 & had resided there continuously w/ the penalties of fines, back taxes due, & admission of guilt
    • - Candidates required to prove that they were not guilty of crimes, were in US before 1982, & they had min. knowledge about US history, govt & English language
    • - ~ 3 mil. illegal immigrants granted legal status
  18. Marshall Plan
    • - AKA European Recovery Program in 1948
    • - US gave $13 bil. in economic support to help rebuild European economies after WWII to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism
    • - Plan in operation for 4 years
    • - Goals were to rebuild war-devastated regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, &make Europe prosperous again
  19. National Security Act
    • - Major restructuring of US gov't military & intelligence agencies following WWII in 1947
    • - Confirmed James Forrestal as the 1st Secretary of Defense
    • - His power was initially limited & easy for him to exercise the authority to make his office effective
    • - Merged Department of War & the Department of Navy --> National Military Establishment AKA Department of Defense headed by the Sec. of Defense
    • - Created Department of the Air Force
    • - Est. National Security Council, a central place of coordination for national security policy in executive branch
    • - Created CIA, the U.S.'s 1st peacetime intelligence agency, function = advise prez. on domestic, foreign & military policies & ensure cooperation between the various military & intelligence agencies
  20. New Deal coalition
    • - 1932 - 1960s
    • - Alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates
    • - Made Demo Party the majority party during that period
    • - FDR forged a coalition w/ Banking and oil industries, the Democratic state party organizations, city machines,labor unions, blue collar workers, minorities, farmers, white Southerners, people on relief, and intellectuals
    • - Fell apart around the bitter factionalism during 1968 election, but remains the model that party activists seek to replicate
  21. People v. Ossian Sweet
    • - AKA Sweet Trials, 1925
    • - Sweet was a physician in Detroit, Michigan noted for his armed self-defense of his newly purchased home in a white neighborhood against a mob trying to force him out
    • - He, his family and friends, who helped defend his home, were acquitted by an all-white jury of murder charges
  22. Port Huron Statement
    • -1962 manifesto of N. American student activist movement Students for a Democratic Society
    • - Written mainly by Tom Hayden & completed at United Auto Workers retreat in Port Huron, Michigan, for the group’s 1st national convention
    • - Articulated fundamental problems of American society & laid out a radical vision for a better future"
    • - Issued a nonideological call for participatory democracy, "both as a means and an end", based on non-violent civil disobedience
  23. Reaganomics
    • - Refers to economic policies promoted by prez. Reagan during the 1980s and still practiced
    • - Policies commonly associated w/ supply-side economics AKA trickle-down economics by political opponents and free market economics by political advocates
    • - 4 pillars of Reagan's economic policy were to reduce the growth of government spending, reduce the federal income tax and capital gains tax, reduce government regulation, and tighten the money supply in order to reduce inflation
  24. Schlafly, Phyllis
    • - American constitutional lawyer,conservative activist, author, and founder of the Eagle Forum
    • - Known for staunch social & political conservatism, opposition to modern feminism & campaign against the proposed Equal Rights Amendment
    • - Her self-published book, A Choice, Not an Echo, published in 1964 
  25. Second Ku Klux Klan
    • - 1915 the 2nd KKK founded in Atlanta, Georgia
    • - 1921 it adopted a modern business system of recruiting (which paid most of the initiation fee and costume charges as commissions to the organizers) and grew rapidly nationwide at a time of prosperity
    • - Reflecting social tensions of urban industrialization and vastly increased immigration, its membership grew most rapidly in cities, and spread out of the South to the Midwest and West
    • - preached "100% Americanism" & demanded the purification of politics, calling for strict morality and better enforcement of prohibition
    • - Official rhetoric focused on the threat of the Catholic Church, using anti-Catholicism and nativism & appeal directed @ white Protestants
    • - Internal divisions, criminal behavior by leaders, and external opposition brought about a collapse in membership, which had dropped to about 30,000 by 1930
    • - Finally faded away in the 1940s
  26. Spanish-American War
    • - 1898 between Spain & US cuz of US intervention in Cuban War of Independence
    • -US opinion upset by anti-Spanish prop led by journalists (Pulitzer &Hearst) using yellow journalism to criticize Spanish administration of Cuba
    • - After strange sinking of US ship Maine in Havana harbor, Dem. Party and certain industrialists pushed McKinley into a war he wished to avoid
    • - Compromise was sought by Spain, but rejected by the United States which sent an ultimatum to Spain demanding it surrender control of Cuba
    • - Spanish Navy lost & in 1898 Treaty of Paris, negotiated on terms favorable to US allowed temp US control of Cuba and gave colonial authority over Puerto Rico,Guam and Philippine islands to US
  27. Stagflation
    • - Combo of words stagnation & inflation
    • - Used in economics to describe a situation where inflation rate is high, economic growth rate slows down & unemployment remains steadily high
    • - Raises dilemma for economic policy since actions designed to lower inflation may exacerbate unemployment & vice versa
    • - Term attributed to UK politician, Iain Macleod, who coined the phrase in his speech to Parliament in 1965
  28. Strategic Defense Initiative
    • - Proposed by Prez. Reagan in 1983
    • - Use ground-based & space-based systems to protect US from attack by nuclear missiles
    • - Initiative focused on strategic defense rather than prior strategic offense doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)
    • - Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) set up in 1984 w/i Department of Defense to oversee initiative
  29. Tet Offensive
    • - One of largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of Viet Cong & N. Vietnamese Army against S. Vietnam, US & their allies
    • - Campaign of surprise attacks against military & civilian commands & control centers thru out S. Vietnam
  30. Truman doctrine
    • - US policy w/ goal of preventing Soviet expansion during Cold War
    • - Prez. Truman pledged to contain communism in Europe and elsewhere & impelled US to support any nation w/ military & economic aid if its stability was threatened by communism or USSR
    • - Truman Doctrine became foundation of prez's foreign policy & placed US in role of global policeman
    • - Truman made plea during Greek Civil War & argued if Greece & Turkey didn't receive aid, they would fall to communism 
    • - Won support of Republicans who controlled Congress & sent $400 mil.
    • - Effect was to end Communist threat & in 1952 both countries joined NATO, a military alliance that guaranteed their protection
  31. Vertical integration
    • - The supply chain of company is owned by that company
    • - Usually each member of the supply chain produces a different product and products combine to satisfy a common need
  32. Voting Rights Act
    • - Law prohibiting discrimination in voting by prez. Johnson in 1965
    • - Congress amended it 5 times to expand protections
    • - Designed to enforce voting rights of 14th & 15th Amendments, the Act allowed for a mass enfranchisement of racial minorities throughout the country, especially in the South
    • - According to Department of Justice,its one of the most effective pieces of civil rights legislation ever enacted in the country
  33. Wagner Act
    • - AKA National Labor Relations Act of 1935
    • - Foundation of US labor law cuz guarantees basic rights of employees to organize into trade unions, engage in collective bargaining for better terms and conditions at work, and take collective action (strike) if needed
    • - Created National Labor Relations Board, which conducts elections that can require employers to engage in collective bargaining with labor/trade unions
    • - The Act does not apply to workers who are covered by the Railway Labor Act, agricultural employees, domestic employees, supervisors, federal, state or local government workers, independent contractors and some close relatives of individual employers
  34. War on Poverty
    • - unofficial name for legislation introduce by Prez. Johnson during his State of the Union address in 1964
    • - Proposed in response to a national poverty rate ~19%
    • - Led Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act, which est. Office of Economic Opportunity to administer local application of federal funds against poverty
    • - Johnson believed in expanding govt's role in education & health care as poverty reduction strategies
    • - Seen as continuation of FDR's New Deal & Four Freedoms of 1941
  35. Watergate scandal
    • - Major political scandal occurred in 1970s
    • - Result of June 1972 break-in at Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office in Washington, D.C. & Nixon administration's attempted cover-up its involvement
    • - When discovered &investigated by Congress, Nixon's administration's resistance to its probes led to a constitutional crisis
    • - Term Watergate now means illegal activities by members of Nixon administration
    • - Activities includ "dirty tricks" e.g. bugging offices of political opponents & people of whom Nixon/his officials were suspicious
    • - Nixon & close aides ordered harassment of activist groups & political figures, using the FBI, CIA, and IRS
    • - Scandal led to discovery of multiple abuses of power by Nixon administration, articles of impeachment & resignation of Nixon in 1974
    • - Also resulted in indictment, trial, conviction, and incarceration of 43 people, dozens of whom were Nixon's top administration officials
  36. Wilsonianism
    • -1913
    • - Certain perspectives on foreign policy
    • - Comes from ideas of Woodrow Wilson & his 14 Points that he believed would help create world peace
    • - Themes:
    •        1. Advocacy of the spread of democracy
    •        2. Advocacy of the spread of capitalism
    •        3. Opposition to isolationism and non-interventionism
    •        4. Pro-imperialism in favor of intervention to further national self-interest

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