BI0005 - Lecture 20 - Benefits of exercise
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What is obesity?
- General observations
- - Adipose tissue in excess
- - BMI is raised
- - Net Energy intake (I.e. Energy intake is greater than expenditure.
What is adipose tissue?
• Adipose tissue = White and Brown
• White - fat storage as triglycerides (twice energy of carbohydrates and protein). Approx 15% (male) ~20% (female) body weight
• Brown - heat storage. Subcutaneous.
• Adipocytes can increase in size (hypertrophy) and number 2(hyperplasia), but adipogenesis is irreversible
What is BMI?
• BMI = weight in kilograms divided by height2 in meters.
• 18.5 → 25 Kg/m2 = normal , >30 Kg/m2 = obese
What are causes of obesity?
- • Failure to control food intake
- • Eating excess : social vs psychogenic factors
- • Lack of exercise
- • Genetics
What controls intake of food?
- • Appetite - a Desire to eat, feelings of hunger, Satiety
- • Involves roles for :
- • CNS ( hypothalamus)
- • Environment (eg temperature)
- • Psychological (eg pleasure)
• Psychogenic factors - anxiety? depression?
• Social factors - Eating habits? Culture?
What effect do genetics have on obesity?
• Eg the obesity gene - produces leptin
• Acts on hypothalamus to suppress appetite & increase energy expenditure
• During fasting levels are low so encouraged to eat and conserve energy
Does physical fitness influence mortality?
Regular physical activity reduces the decline in functional capacity associated with aging and disuse.
Low fitness is of greater relative risk of all-cause mortality than cigarette smoking.
Reduced death risk for individuals who participate in regular exercise
Lower risk of Myocardial Infarction with frequent vigorous exertion and aerobic fitness
What are other benefits of improved physical fitness?
Reduced vascular risk
Reduced inflammatory markers
Enhanced neuronal function
Reduced cognitive decline/ dementia
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