Anthropology final

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Anthropology final
2014-05-08 12:57:45
Anthropology 101

Final Exam
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  1. Archaeology
    The study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts and other physical remains.
  2. Artifact
    an object made by a human being, typically an item of cultural or historical interest.
  3. Anthropology
    the comparative study of human societies and cultures and their development.
  4. Paleoanthropology
    the branch of anthropology concerned with fossil hominids.
  5. estrus
  6. Meiosis
    a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
  7. mitosis
    a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
  8. allele
    one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
  9. Founder Effect
    the reduced genetic diversity that results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors.
  10. Genetic Drift
    variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population, owing to the chance disappearance of particular genes as individuals die or do not reproduce.
  11. Pleistocene
    of, relating to, or denoting the first epoch of the Quaternary period, between the Pliocene and Holocene epochs. (2,588,000 - 11,700)
  12. Holocene
    of, relating to, or denoting the present epoch, which is the second epoch in the Quaternary period and followed the Pleistocene.(11,700 - Present)
  13. Oldowan tools
    term used to refer to the earliest stone toolindustry in prehistory.
  14. Achulean tools
    Hand axes and such
  15. Complete Replacement
    Anthropologists have been divided as to whether Homo sapiens evolved as one interconnected species from H. erectus (called the Multiregional Model, or the Regional Continuity Model), or evolved only in East Africa, and then migrated out of Africa and replaced H. erectus populations throughout the Old World (called the Out of Africa Model or the Complete Replacement Model).
  16. Partial Replacement
    first modern humans did evolve in Africa, but when they migrated into other regions they did not simply replace existing human populations. Rather, they interbred to a limited degree with late archaic humans resulting in hybrid populations.
  17. Regional Continuity
    a hypothesis which states that modem H. sapiens had multiple origins from existing local populations. Each local population of archaic humans gave rise to a population of modem H. sapiens.
  18. Clovis
    Leaf shaped stone spearheads. Surrounded by controversy.
  19. Solutrean
    relatively advanced flint tool-making style of the Upper Palaeolithic, from around 22,000 to 17,000 BP
  20. Sinodonty and Sunodonty
    Sinodonty is seen in Native Americans and Asians: shovel shaped incisors.

    Sunodonty: Incisors aren't shoveled.

    Important because it shows evidence that early hominins traveled to the new World
  21. Cro Magnon
    First early hominins
  22. neolithic
    of, relating to, or denoting the later part of the Stone Age, when ground or polished stone weapons and implements prevailed.
  23. obsidian
    a hard, dark, glasslike volcanic rock formed by the rapid solidification of lava without crystallization.
  24. Cultigen
    a plant species or variety known only in cultivation, especially one with no known wild ancestor.
  25. Hadar, Ethiopia
    "Lucy" australopithicus afarensis
  26. Laetoli, Tanzania
    Oldest evidence of bipedalism
  27. Olduvai, Tanzania
    site of habilis, boisei, and sapien
  28. Lake Turkana, Kenya
    Turkana Boy. Oldest almost complete skeleton found. 1.5 million years ago
  29. Shanidar, Iraq
    • Ralph salecki
    • 10 Neanderthal Skeletons.
    • Possible burial ground.
    • Deformed skeleton shows evidence that early hominins took care of the elderly and disabled.
  30. Catawba
    Group that made highly sophisticated pottery. Used for making stew for elderly to eat.
  31. Adena
    Constructed mounds
  32. Mississippian
    Culture with Intensive cultivating techniques
  33. Jericho
    One of the earliest sedentary communities.
  34. Catalhoyuk
    • Trade and religious center
    • densely packed living areas
    • mudbrick houses
    • ceremony and belief
  35. Taung Child
    Taung was discovered to be part of hominin tree
  36. Red Deer Cave People
    another hominin species which died out
  37. Kennewick Man
    Controversy due to legal matters.
  38. Anthropocene
    informal geologic chronological term that marks the evidence and extent of human activities that have had a significant global impact on the Earth's ecosystems