The study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts and other physical remains.
an object made by a human being, typically an item of cultural or historical interest.
the comparative study of human societies and cultures and their development.
the branch of anthropology concerned with fossil hominids.
a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
the reduced genetic diversity that results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors.
variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population, owing to the chance disappearance of particular genes as individuals die or do not reproduce.
of, relating to, or denoting the first epoch of the Quaternary period, between the Pliocene and Holocene epochs. (2,588,000 - 11,700)
of, relating to, or denoting the present epoch, which is the second epoch in the Quaternary period and followed the Pleistocene.(11,700 - Present)
term used to refer to the earliest stone toolindustry in prehistory.
Hand axes and such
Anthropologists have been divided as to whether Homo sapiens evolved as one interconnected species from H. erectus (called the Multiregional Model, or the Regional Continuity Model), or evolved only in East Africa, and then migrated out of Africa and replaced H. erectus populations throughout the Old World (called the Out of Africa Model or the Complete Replacement Model).
first modern humans did evolve in Africa, but when they migrated into other regions they did not simply replace existing human populations. Rather, they interbred to a limited degree with late archaic humans resulting in hybrid populations.
a hypothesis which states that modem H. sapiens had multiple origins from existing local populations. Each local population of archaic humans gave rise to a population of modem H. sapiens.
Leaf shaped stone spearheads. Surrounded by controversy.
relatively advanced flint tool-making style of the Upper Palaeolithic, from around 22,000 to 17,000 BP
Sinodonty and Sunodonty
Sinodonty is seen in Native Americans and Asians: shovel shaped incisors.
Sunodonty: Incisors aren't shoveled.
Important because it shows evidence that early hominins traveled to the new World
First early hominins
of, relating to, or denoting the later part of the Stone Age, when ground or polished stone weapons and implements prevailed.
a hard, dark, glasslike volcanic rock formed by the rapid solidification of lava without crystallization.
a plant species or variety known only in cultivation, especially one with no known wild ancestor.
"Lucy" australopithicus afarensis
Oldest evidence of bipedalism
site of habilis, boisei, and sapien
Lake Turkana, Kenya
Turkana Boy. Oldest almost complete skeleton found. 1.5 million years ago
10 Neanderthal Skeletons.
Possible burial ground.
Deformed skeleton shows evidence that early hominins took care of the elderly and disabled.
Group that made highly sophisticated pottery. Used for making stew for elderly to eat.
Culture with Intensive cultivating techniques
One of the earliest sedentary communities.
Trade and religious center
densely packed living areas
ceremony and belief
Taung was discovered to be part of hominin tree
Red Deer Cave People
another hominin species which died out
Controversy due to legal matters.
informal geologic chronological term that marks the evidence and extent of human activities that have had a significant global impact on the Earth's ecosystems