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  1. Primary sources from which information comes
    • Are first hand records of events, theories, opinions, or actions
    • Can come in form of either published or unpublished documents, recording, or artifacts
  2. Biases vs stereotypes
    • biases are opinions or beliefs that affect a person's ability to make fair, unclouded judgements or decisions
    • stereotypes are oversimplified opinions, that do not account for individual differences, about an entire group of people or things
    • most discussions center on controversial political or social issues
  3. Narrative text
    tells a story, or relates a chain of events
  4. expository passage
    introduces or explains a subject, gives groundwork information that is necessary for understanding later ideas, or analyzes info objectively
  5. Technical writing
    • passes along precise info, usually about a specific topic
    • usually in a formal or semi-formal style
  6. topic, main idea, and themes of a written work
    • the topic is the general subject matter
    • main idea is the work's specific message; the reason the work was written
    • theme are ideas or concepts the written work comes back to again and again (ex: in depression, would touch upon themes of despair, hope, redemption, and self-improvement)
  7. inferences
    a logical conclusion that is not actually written in the text; rather, it is deduced by the reader, based on info that is written in the text
  8. text structure
    the way which a given text is organized
  9. problem-solution strucutre
    • may be illustrated by presenting the problem in one paragraph, and the solution in another
    • Or can be one paragraph w both problem and solution
  10. comparison-contrast structure
    author may present two different cases with the intent of making reader consider differences or similarities btwn the 2 cases
  11. cause-effect structure
    normally author presents an action first, and then describes the effects that result (or may result) from that action
  12. Common prefixes in the metric system:
    103; 102; 101; 100
    • 10= 1000 = kilo (k)
    • 102 = 100  = hecto (h)
    • 101 = 10   = deka (da)
    • 100 = 1  = no prefix
  13. Common prefixes in the metric system:
    10-1; 10-2; 10-3
    • 10-1 = 1/10  = deci (d)
    • 10-2 = 1/100  = centi (c)
    • 10-3 = 1/1000 = milli (m)
  14. Conversions btwn english and metric measurement: LENGTH
    1 inch = ? cm
    1 km = ? mile
    • 1 inch = 2.54 cm
    • 1 km = 1000 m = .62 mile
  15. Conversions btwn english and metric: LENGTH
    1 meter = ? inch
    1 mile = ? meter
    1 yard = ? meter
    • 1 meter = 39.37 inch
    • 1 mile = 1609 m
    • 1 yard = 0.914 m
  16. conversions btwn english and metric measurements: WEIGHT
    1 kg = ? lds
    1 ounce = ? g
    1 ld = ? kg
    • 1 kg = 2.2 pounds
    • 1 ounce = 28 g
    • 1 pound = 0.45 kg
  17. Conversions btwn english and metric measurements: volume
    1 L = ? quarts
    1 ounce = ? mL
    1 teaspoon = ? mL
    1 quart = ? L
    1 gallon = ? L
    • 1 L = 1.06 quarts
    • 1 ounce = 30 mL
    • 1 teaspoon = 5 mL
    • 1 quart = 0.95 L
    • 1 gallon = 3.785 L
  18. How many feet in a mile
    5280 feet
  19. Volume measurements:
    1 cup = ? ounces
    1 pint = ? cups
    1 quart = ? pints
    1 gallon = ? quarts
    • 1 cup = 8 ounces
    • 1 pint = 2 cups
    • 1 quart = 2 pints
    • 1 gallon = 4 quarts
  20. Weight measurements:
    1 ld = ? ounces
    1 lb = 16 ounces
  21. calipers
    • an instrument used to measure very small lengths
    • usually 6 inches or fewer w greater precision than a ruler
  22. hypothesis
    • an explanation formulated to answer the questions being investigated
    • has a statement that can be tested
  23. Steps for forming a hypothesis
    • Identify the problem
    • ask question
    • formulate an explanation to answer the questions
  24. Steps to the scientific method
    • Problem identification
    • question asking
    • hypothesis development
    • data collection and experimentation
    • analysis
    • conclusion
  25. deductive reasoning vs inductive reasoning
    • deductive reasoning is when conclusions follow a general principle; Leads to a specific conclusion
    • inductive reasoning is when conclusion are formed from specific facts; relies heavily on a preponderance of info that leads to a certain degree of confidence in a conclusion

    *refers to having convincing evidence and its probable truth or accuracy, and not on the amount of evidence
  26. Hierarchy of the structure of the human body
    • From smallest to largest:
    • atom
    • molecules
    • cells
    • tissues
    • organs
    • organs systems
    • organsim
  27. atoms
    • the smallest parts of elements that still retain all the original properties of the element
    • combine to form molecules
  28. molecule
    a chemical bonding of atoms that possesses it's own characteristics independent of the atom themselves
  29. cells
    • made up of specific combined molecules 
    • basic unit of life
    • they further combine in terms of function and form tissues
  30. 4 basic tissue types in humans
    • epithelial 
    • connective
    • muscular
    • nervous
  31. Epithelial tissue
    • serves two functions: provide covering (skin) or produce secretions (as in glandular tissue)
    • commonly in layers
    • doesn't have own blood supply; dependant on diffusion from capillaries for blood & O2
    • can easily regenerate
  32. Classifications of epithelial tissue
    • based on 2 criteria:
    • # of cell layers
    • Simple epithelium contains only one layer; found where absorption, secretion and filtration occur
    • Stratified epithelium has more than one layer and serves as protection
    •  cell shape
    • includes squamous, cuboidal, and columnar
  33. Connective tissue
    • found throughout the body
    • serves to connect different structures 
    • commonly has own blood supply; however some types do not
    • Includes: bone, cartilage, adipose, and blood vessel
  34. Muscle tissue
    • dedicated to producing movement
    • 3 types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
  35. Nervous tissue
    • provides the structure for the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
    • made up neurons
    • Support cells (such as myelin) help protect nervous tissue
  36. 11 organ system of the body
    • circulatory
    • digestive
    • endocrine
    • integumentary
    • lymphatic 
    • muscular
    • nervous
    • reproductive
    • respiratory 
    • skeletal
    • urinary
  37. positional term: intermediate
    btwn medial and lateral
  38. sagittal section
    cut dividing body into L and R halves
  39. midsagittal section
    sagittal section made in median of body
  40. frontal section
    cuts body into front and back sections
  41. dorsal body cavity
    contains the cranial cavity and spinal column
  42. ventral body cavity
    • contains structures within chest and abdomen
    • diaphragm divides ventral cavity into thoracic cavity and abdominal/ pelvic cavities
  43. Functions of the human body
    • Adaption
    • Circulation
    • Elimination
    • Locomotion
    • Nutrition
    • Oxygenation
    • Regulation
    • Self-duplication
    • *Always Check Emergency Lights, Never On Rivals Shifts
  44. Ways in which the organ systems interact
    • Maintaining boundaries
    • responding to environmental changes
    • moving
    • ingesting and digesting
    • reproducing
    • growing
    • excreting
    • metabolizing
  45. What is meant by maintaining boundaries (referring to ways organ systems interact)
    • In reference to the semi-permeable membrane of cells, allows some substances to pass through while restricting others
    • Ex: The integumentary system surrounds the entire body protecting it from the environment and other pathogens
  46. memory aid for: tricuspid vs mitral valve
    Tricuspid is the first valve deoxygenated blood flows through. There are 3 veins leading to the right atrium to supply said blood to flow through this valve.
  47. perforins
    • produced by natural killer (NK) cells
    • pore-forming proteins which target cancer and virus cells
    • cause those cells to lyse (rupture)
  48. interferons
    • the body's response to a viral infection and prevent replication of the virus after 7 to 10 days
    • also activate macrophages and NK cells
  49. Chemotaxis
    • the method by which the WBC respond to damaged body tissues
    • accomplished in part by cytokines
  50. cytokines
    chemical messengers that are released by damaged tissues
  51. diapedesis
    • the process of white blood cells squeezing through capillary slits in response to cytokines
    • After, this process cellular adhesion molecules (CAM) guide WBC to the site of damage or infection
  52. Innate defenses
    • functions which provide nonspecific type of defense
    • mechanisms occur the same way every time
    • 1st line of defense is scheen and chemical barriers
    • 2nd line of defense include fever, inflammation, phagocytosis, etc
  53. Adaptive responses
    • known as 3rd line of defense, of specific defenses
    • include both antibody-mediated & cell-mediated responses
  54. describe antibody-mediated branch of adaptive immune response
    • antibodies are produced that are specific for the invading antigen
    • The antigen binds to B cells , followed by binding w T-helper cells
    • This activates the B cells to produce antibodies
  55. active immunity
    an individual receives a vaccine that simulated an actual infection by a pathogen, stimulating the body to produce antibodies for futrue protection
  56. passive immunity
    • an individual does not produce his or her own antibodies, but rather receives them directly from another source
    • Ex: mother to infant through breast milk
    • *Once the immune system has produced antibodies against a pathogen, it is able to recognize that pathogen in the future and destroy it more effectively
  57. cell-mediated immunity
    • T-cells are primarily responsible for recognizing non-self cells
    • 3 step process:
    • macrophages capture the non-self cell
    • T-helper cell binds to it and secretes a cytokine that signals the cytotoxic T cell
    • The cytotoxic T cell responds through chemotaxis and actively destroys the non-self cells
  58. T cell
    a lymphocyte that triggers the action of other lymphocytes
  59. crude birth rate
    defined by the number of births per 1000 people per year
  60. crude death rate
    the number of deaths per 1000 per year
  61. Eight levels of taxonomy
    • From most basic to most precise:
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
    • *Don't Kill People Cause Only Friendly Girls Survive
  62. What is the proper way to write binomial nomenclature
    The Latin name of the genus and species is written in italics; with the genus capitalized and the species not capitalized
  63. What is the breakdown of Domain
    • Archaea
    • Eubacteria
    • Eukarya
  64. How many kingdoms:
    • 6 total:
    • Eukarya domain:
    • Animalia
    • Fungi
    • Plantae
    • Protista
    • Eubacteria domain:
    • Eukacteria
    • Archaea domain:
    • Archaebacteria
  65. genes
    • stretches of DNA on a chromosome that provide info for an organism's characteristics
    • responsible for heredity
  66. alleles
    • one of a number of alternative forms of the same gene
    • Technically, one copy of gene inherited from mom, other from father
  67. adaptation
    the process by which some individuals are better able to survive and adapt to the environment in which they live; through mutations and combinations of alleles
  68. nucleic acids
    • DNA & RNA
    • job is to store and transmit hereditary info
  69. describe structure of nucleic acid
    is a chain of nucleotides that consist of a pentose (sugar), a phosphate group (the molecule backbone of DNA/RNA) and a nitrogenous base (molecule found in DNA/RNA that codes the genetic info into cells)
  70. What nitrogenous bases are found in DNA
    • Cytosine
    • Guanine

    • Adenine
    • Thymine (only found in DNA, not RNA)

    *A always pairs w T; G always pairs w C
  71. What nitrogenous bases are found in RNA
    • Adenine
    • Cytosine
    • Guanine
    • Uracil (only found in RNA)

    *Unlike DNA, RNA is usually exists as single-stranded string instead of double helix
  72. Pyrimidines & Purines Bases
    (In DNA)
    Purines: include adenine and guanine; they have two rings

    Pyrimidines: include thymine and cytosine; they only have one ring
  73. Aside from the differences in the pyrimidine bases, what other fundamental difference is there btwn DNA and RNA
    • Simply the pentose component
    • For DNA = deoxyribose
    • For RNA = ribose
  74. Describe the basic idea/process of DNA and RNA...
    • DNA is like the basic blueprint of a cell, RNA is messenger w/in the cell
    • Messages stored in bases of DNA must be transferred to ribosomes to make proteins
    • So through transcription, cells copy instructions in DNA into RNA and send the messenger RNA to the ribosomes
    • At the ribosomes, translation happens as proteins are made by from the instructions in RNA and sent out to entire cell
    • DNA, RNA< and ribosomes work hand in hand to produce the proteins necessary for life in cells
  75. Specific base pairing rule w DNA replication
    • A-T 
    • C-G
    • and vice versa: T-A, G-C
    • *REMEMBER: A always binds to the base that is different btwn RNA and DNA. Therefore, it will always bind w either a T or U. G and C stay together.
  76. Prokaryotic cell
    • most basic type of cells that can exist independently of other cells
    • Include bacteria
    • Contain cell wall and plasma membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, ribosomes, plasmids, and a nucleoid
    • Some also contain a flagellum
    • Bacteria also have pili, which allow communication and transfer of info btwn 2 cells
  77. plasmids
    • of a prokaryotic cell
    • small, circular portions of DNA not associated with the nucleoid
    • contains a small # of genes compared to DNA in nucleoid
  78. nucleoid
    • of a prokaryotic cell
    • the condensed DNA of the cell
    • contains genes and genetic blueprints for the formation of proteins that make up the machinery of the cell
  79. Eukaryotic cells
    • more complex and many times larger than prokaryotic cells
    • Has many parts
    • plasma membrane envelopes the cell
  80. ER
    • endoplasmic reticulum ~ a tubular transport network
    • appears as stack of flattened membranous sacs
    • responsible for moving proteins from one part of cell to another & moving proteins outside cell via secretion
    • 2 types: 
    • Rough - studded w ribosomes, causing rough appearance
    • Smooth - important for numerous metabolic processes in cell
  81. Golgi apparatus
    • involved in packaging and transport of proteins in cell, including protein secretion
    • composed of layers of membranes & has several functions:
    • refines proteins made by ribosomes, sorts proteins and prepares them for transport to other part of cell or for secretion, works w ER in protein movement & processing
  82. Vesicles
    • small membrane-bounded sacs w/in cytoplasm used to transport proteins & other substances into and out of the cell
    • Many types, but most common:
    • Vacuole, lysosomes, and peroxisomes
  83. vacuole
    • type of vesicle
    • is a basic storage unit of the cell that can hold various compounds
  84. lysosome
    • type of vesicle
    • contains digestive enzymes that are capable of disposing of cellular debris and warn cellular parts
  85. peroxisome
    • type of vesicle
    • functions to rid body of toxic components, such as hydrogen peroxide
    • major sites of oxygen use and energy production
    • liver contains many as toxic substances build up there
  86. Mitochondria
    • powerhouses of cell cause they are where ATP is produced
    • have cristae (series of folds) inside in which enzymes are found
    • These enzymes help convert sugar into ATP to power the cell
  87. microtubules
    • cellular tracks that (during mitosis) form mitotic spindle
    • spindle helps organize and segregate the chromosomes during cell division
  88. centrosomes
    microtubule-organizing centers that help to form and organize the mitotic spindle during mitosis
  89. nucleus and nucleolus
    nucleus is large organelle, enclosed by double membrane w pores. Is control center of entire cell, directs all activity

    nucleolus is small body w/in nucleus and functions to produce ribosomes that get moved to the cytoplasm to make cell proteins
  90. What features are only found in plant cells
    • chloroplasts , which contain chlorophyll that allows the capture of sunlight to be used to produce glucose during photosynthesis. Structurally similar to mitochondria (which it does have)
    • have larger vacuoles than eukaryotic cells
    • has a solid wall that acts as a barrier and gives structure to cell
  91. Name 2 main differences btwn plant cells and eukaryotic cells
    • A plant cell has chloroplasts and a cell wall
    • Eukaryotic cell does not
  92. embryo vs zygote
    • zygote is fertilized egg
    • embryo is plant or animal in early stages of development after fertilization
  93. Cell Cycle
    • Mitosis and interphase
    • takes approx. 24hr to complete
  94. Interphase
    • part of cell cycle, DNA is in euchromatin form
    • Consists of 3 stage when cell is not actively dividing
    • -G1 (also called "growth-1" or "gap-1")
    • -S (replication of DNA)
    • -G2 (growth-2 or "gap-2")
  95. G1
    • happens after mitosis, 
    • takes 8 - 10 hours to complete
    • Cell duplicates organelles and cytoplasmic components
    • DNA double helix unwinds to expose the bases, RNA pairs w complementary partners on DNA to form messenger RNA
    • Once entire gene is copied into messenger RNA, mRNA exits nucleus and takes info to ribosome
  96. quiescent
    a resting state, cell is incapable of cell division, parked in cell cycle called G0
  97. G0
    • pronounced "Gee-zero"
    • If cell cannot pass the G1/S checkpoint, or is quiescent (not actively dividing) remains in G0
    • where cell exits cell cycle, gets "off merry-go-round"
    • *G0 Lock happens when a cell never comes out, or never divides again. Like neurons spend lifetime here
    • Other cells (like liver, kidney) may wait here for up to several years but can prepare for division if needed
  98. S
    • phase in interphase, stands for "synthesis" (for DNA)
    • replication of DNA so it can be divided equally btwn daughter cells  (went from 46 to 92 chromatids)
    • takes 8 hours
  99. Exactly how does DNA double helix can be released to allow replication
    • The double helix unwinds w help of enzymes
    • This breaks the hydrogen bonds btwn base pairs & separates the bases, but does not remove the bases from the backbone of their half of double helix
    • The exposed bases pair w new complementary bases that are synthesized into new strands w help of DNA polymerase
    • The two strands go through the same process at the same time
    • Thus, two new strands of identical DNA form; each has one strand of original and one strand that was newly synthesized
  100. G2
    • last part of interphase, finalizes it's preparations for mitosis
    • Includes continued protein synthesis and cell growth in preparation for cell division
    • Cell now carries double amount of normal DNA 
    • Duplication of centromeres, now has 92 DNA molecules
    • Second checkpoint must be crossed
    • takes 4 - 6 hours
  101. Mitosis
    • M phase ~ the actually, active process of cell division
    • takes about 30 minutes
    • 4 stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
    • "please meet aunt teresa"
  102. prophase
    • first phase of mitosis
    • DNA is tightly packed into chromosomes
    • nuclear envelope breaks down
    • mitotic spindle forms and centrioles move to opposite sides of cell
  103. metaphase
    • everything in parent cell lines up in middle (at metaphase plate)
    • chromosomes (formed in prophase) move to middle of parent cell and microtubules of mitotic spindle attach to anchors (centromeres)
  104. anaphase
    • the phase of mitosis where the contents of the two daughter cells move backwards, away from each other
    • chromatids are torn apart in two equal pieces
    • cytokinesis begins (which separates the 2 sets of chromosomes into different cells)
  105. telophase
    • mitosis is complete ("telo: end")
    • identical sets of chromosomes are at opposite ends of cell
    • spindle fibers disappear, nuclear membranes reappear, cytokinesis completes
    • cleavage furrow appears, cell split
  106. Mitosis vs. Cytokinesis
    • Mitosis: process of nuclear division. Genetic material must be parcelled equally btwn cells, chromosomes form, get pull apart, dissolve
    • Cytokinesis: process of cell division (happens at end of mitosis, in cytoplasm & organelles). plasma membrane of cells tightens like rubber band and pinches off two cells. Separates genetic material cytoplasm and organelles into two equal daughter cells.
  107. chromosome #'s
    • called "n"
    • Each daughter cell must have appropriate amount of DNA: two copies of each gene, called a diploid # (2n)
    • Cells which have only one copy of each chromosome are called haploid (sperm n egg)
  108. gametes
    • male gamete = sperm
    • female gamete = egg
    • the cells that form a new organism via sexual reproduction (w gametes from both sexes combine)
  109. chromatids
    • a single, continuous DNA strand w an unbroken backbone of deoxyribose-phosphate
    • two linked in the middle (by centromere) make up the chromosome
    • so, one chromatid makes one part of the "x" of a chromosome
  110. meiosis vs mitosis
    • Mitosis creates two daughter cells that are identical to the "parent"
    • Meiosis halves the DNA content in Meiosis I and then Meiosis II resembles mitosis
  111. homologous chromosome
    • Occurs in a diploid cell (which has 2 sets of chromosomes), in which each individual chromosome has a twin chromosome (homologous)
    • it is almost identical in size, function and genes
  112. Prophase I ~ Meiosis
    Homologous chromosomes condense and link in the process, forming tetrads. This allows crossing over or recombination to occur

    *Tetrads refer to the set of chromosomes next to each other, right before crossover takes place. There are technically 4 chromatids (tetra = 4)
  113. Metaphase I ~ meiosis
    • Homologous chromosomes search out it's homologous (basically, it's twin chromosome) and they both move to the metaphase plate (midline)
    • Therefore, there's 2 chromosomes lines up together, each consisting of 2 chromatids
  114. Anaphase I ~ Meiosis
    The homologous chromosomes (twins) separate BUT THE SISTER CHROMATIDS OF EACH CHROMOSOME STAY TOGETHER
  115. Telophase I ~ meiosis
    • cytokinesis has occurred
    • Two haploid daughter cells are the result

    *From here, the cell does not rest but continues into meiosis 2
  116. Prophase II ~ meiosis
    brief stage in which spindle fibers again begin to form and centrioles move to opposite poles
  117. metaphase II ~ meiosis
    Sister chromatids (chromosomes) align at new metaphase plate
  118. Anaphase II ~ meiosis
    Sister chromatids separate again
  119. Telophase II ~ meiosis
    Four haploid cells result after cytokinesis
  120. autotroph
    • refers to an organism that can produce it's own food
    • most use photosynthesis to live
  121. heterotrophs
    • organisms that cannot produce their own food
    • they use cellular respiration in order to produce ATP from glucose
  122. photosynthesis
    • the process carried out by gree plants, green algae, and certain, bacteria, in which the energy from sunlight is trapped by the green pigment chlorophyll and used for synthesis of glucose
    • They can do this because of the special organelle chloroplast, which is where the chemical changes happen
  123. cellular respiration
    • the process by which glucose is broken down by glycolysis, which transfers some of the energy in glucose to ATP
    • The end products of glycolysis are fed into citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to produce more ATP
    • Together, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle constitute cellular respiration
  124. euchromatin
    unspooled, open, ready chromatin
  125. codon
    • A code of hereditary info on a gene; made up of sequences of the nitrogenous bases of DNA.
    • Each piece of the code is referred to as a codon and is composed of 3 bases. 
    • There are 64 codons (since 64 different 3-letter combo's can be formed from A, T, C, and G)
    • Each one matches a specific amino acid
    • *since there are 20 different amino acids, some codons match to same amino acid. Recall chains of amino acids make proteins
  126. genome
    a complete set of DNA for an individual that contains all genes
  127. mutagen
    a substance the induces mutations
  128. How can a mutation in the genome occure
    • errors in DNA replication 
    • or via a mutagen
    • *Cells do have back-up plans in place for both, so it greatly reduces the overall rate at which mutations arise
  129. mismatch pair
    • a back-up plan cells have if DNA bases are mis-matched in cell replication
    • After new DNA is replicated, it is proof-read to find any mistakes. 
    • If a mismatch is found, it repairs it by removing the incorrect base and replacing it with a proper one
    • IF a mutation squeaks through the cracks of this system, the DNA sequence from then on is altered. Certain forms of cancer arise this way
  130. excision repair
    Recall that during a cells life, may be exposed to certain substances capable of damaging DNA, such as harmful chemicals to UV rays from the sun

    • This is a mechanism which inspects DNA for this type of damage and attempts to repair it. 
    • Since modifications by mutagens often occur over a section of DNA (opposed to individual bases), this repair system will cut the defective strand of DNA, remove those bases that are near (including mutated ones) and allow DNA polymerase to generate a new, correct piece of DNA
    • Certain skin diseases are a result from this excision repair mechanism not working right
  131. germ cells
    • the reproductive cells that give rise to sperm and ovum
    • *any DNA mutations an individual may develop over their lifetime that lead to certain diseases, disorders or cancer, the mutations will only be passed on if they are present in the DNA germ cells
  132. phenotypes
    • the physical expressions of genetic traits
    • In humans, would include hair and eye color
  133. genotype
    • an organism's underlying genetic makeup or code
    • it's a blueprint for building and maintaining all structures within the cells of the body, from small proteins to metabolic activites
    • The DNA w/in genes codes for proteins that determine hereditary traits which are passed down btwn generations. Interactions btwn genotype and environment affect the phenotype of the organism
  134. light-year
    • the measurement used in space
    • meaning the distance that light will travel within 1 year of time
  135. electromagnetic waves
    • waves of radiation that are characterized by electric and magnetic fields
    • are members of a spectrum, distinguished by wavelengths ranging from short to long:
    • Gamma ray, x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave and radio waves
    • *Great eXotics Use Vaginal Instruments Regularly
  136. visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum
    • color bands ordered from long to short:
    • red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet

    *From short to long: Very Incredible Boobs Get You hOrny, Right?
  137. How is energy and it's ability to do work quantified? (measured)
    • in units of the metric system:
    • Joules (J) or calories
    • J being larger
  138. kinetic energy
    • KE = energy of motion
    • can be calculated using the equation:

    • Image Upload
    • where m = mass of an object, v = velocity
  139. How to calculate potential energy
    PE = potential energy, which is stored energy

    • PE = mgh; where
    • m= the mass of the object
    • g = the standard gravity constant
    • h = the height at which an object is located
  140. Law of Conservation of Energy
    • says that energy is not lost but rather transferred back and forth btwn KE and PE
    • Therefore, given a fixed amount of total energy in a system, an increase in KE will result in a decrease in PE (and vise versa), but the total energy will remain the same
    • *(Where KE = kinetic energy, PE = potential energy)
  141. matter
    anything that takes up space and has mass
  142. mass
    the quantity of matter an object has
  143. What distinguishes one atom from the next
    • recall atoms have subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons
    • Protons and neutrons are within the nucleus of the atom
    • the number of protons distinguishes one atom from another
  144. atomic number
    • the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom 
    • therefore, the atomic number serves as an ordering device for the periodic table

    *the number written in the top of the box on the periodic table
  145. Recall the masses of protons, electrons and neutrons
    • Protons and neutrons have approximately the same mass
    • an electron's mass is much less
    • Therefore, the total mass of an atom is driven primarily by it's number of protons and neutrons according to the mass number
  146. mass number
    the total # of protons and neutrons found within the nucleus of an atom
  147. atomic mass
    recall that a given atom can have several versions (called isotopes) that differ by the mass number

    • the average mass of all of the known isotopes of an element; represents the most common isotope when rounded to a whole number
    • *always the number written on the bottom of the box in the periodic table
  148. How can you find the # of neutrons
    • Recall the # of neutrons + the # of protons = the mass number
    • So subtract your # of protons from the mass number
  149. isotope
    • atoms with the same # of protons, but different numbers of electrons
    • making the mass number vary for the same type of atom

    *recall, the mass # is protons & neutrons added together!!
  150. purpose of catalysts
    • they increase reaction rates by lowering activation energy (so similar to enzymes)
    • control the rate of chemical reactions, or reactions in which atoms react to come to a stable state
    • Generally not consumed during reactions; so can start over once a reaction is finished:
  151. Example of general reaction with catalyst
    • Is a four step process, where X and Y are reactants, C is catalyst, and Z is new product:
    • X + C → XC
    • XC + Y → XYC
    • XYC → CZ  (reactant made product)

    CZ → C + Z

    *notice catalyst is still there, can start another reaction
  152. recall valence electrons
    electrons in the outermost shell of an atom
  153. electronegativity
    • a measure of an atom's attraction on electrons
    • elements w low ionization energies have low electronegativity on it's electrons. More likely to lose
    • from L to R on tabel, electronegativity increases
  154. recall enzymes
    • act as catalysts within the human body
    • perform their functions by attaching to substrate molecules and converting them to products
    • the flexibility of an enzyme allows it's active site surface to reshape when placed in contact w a substrate
    • typical reaction: Enzyme, Substrate, Product
    • E + S → ES → E + P
  155. globular proteins
    • proteins that are water soluble
    • are built from amino acids that form chains ranging from a few dozen to thousands of members
    • Each sequence produces a specific 3-D structure
  156. pH measures what?
    is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration within a solution
  157. substrate
    a molecular surface acted upon by an enzyme
  158. metabolic pathways
    chemical reactions with a cell
  159. Recall pH scale
    • acidic solutions have a pH less than 7
    • basic solutions have pH greater than 7

    *Remember, a comes first in the alphabet.
  160. how to figure the pH scale
    based on the activity (aH) of hydrogen ions (H+) dissolved in solution

    pH = -log (aH)

    • *the negative sign means aH must be less than one
    • See examples on pg 163
  161. pH indicator
    • used to qualitatively determine the pH
    • A weak acid of base (such as litmus paper) changes color when introduced to an unknown acid or base
    • Litmus paper will indicate red for acidic and blue for basic
    • Even though pH indicators will not give precise measurements, they can give an approximate value when needed
  162. Describe the # of hydrogen ions associated w a basic solution
    • The calculation of activity requires a smaller % of hydrogen ions to yield values larger than seven on pH scale
    • Therefore, for basic solution # of ions need be small
  163. ionic bonding
    the electrical attraction btwn ions of opposite charges
  164. covalent bonding
    the sharing of electrons btwn atoms
  165. hydrocarbons
    • ex: methane, propane, butane
    • they bond to hydrogen and carbon atoms
    • Are an example of common molecules which use both ionic and covalent bonding
  166. alkanes
    • also known as saturated hydrocarbons
    • are the most basic structure of hydrocarbons
    • They are compounds composed entirely of single bonds and are saturated (carbon is completely connected) with hydrogen
  167. general formula for saturated hydrocarbons

    Where n is a whole number greater or equal to 1
  168. unsaturated hydrocarbons
    refers to a hydrocarbon that has one or more double or triple bonds btwn carbon atoms

    permit the attachment of other atoms to the unbonded carbon atoms within the molecule
  169. alkenes
    an unsaturated hydrocarbon that has one double bond 

    • general formula: CnH2n
    • again, n is a whole number greater than or equal to 1
  170. alkynes
    an unsaturated hydrocarbon that has triple bonds 

    General formula: CnH2n-2
  171. metalloids
    • elements that may accept or donate electrons readily
    • possess a mix of metallic and nonmetallic properties
    • are in contact with the stairstep line on periodic table
  172. recall cation and anion
    A cation is a positive ion (Yes, I hit a cat)

    An anion is a negative ion (your an Asshole)
  173. Lewis structures
    • also called lewis dot diagrams
    • provide visual reps of covalent bonding btwn atoms
    • Shown at dots around the symbols of a molecule: Na + Cl (dots would be around Na and Cl)
  174. Oxidation-reduction reations
    • involve the donation and acceptance of electrons
    • oxidation involves electron donation to produce a positive ion
    • reduction involves electron acceptance to produce a more negative ion

    Ex: combustion, metabolism, and photosynthesis
  175. reactions btwn bases and acids produce
    water and salts, which act to neutralize the pH
  176. characteristics of water
    • is a polar molecule of hydrogen and O (uneven sharing of electrons)
    • serves as a pH standard, which is central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function
    • low electrical conductivity
    • max density is 4° C; where density is the ration of mass per volume for a substance
    • possesses the 2nd highest specific heat (after ammonia)
    • has a high heat of vaperization
  177. Kelvin scale
    • the metric temp scale defined by an absolute zero reference point  
    • 0 K = -273 ° C

    are standardized by the triple-point of water
  178. triple point of water
    • the temp and pressure at which water will coexist as a solid, liquid and gas
    • 273.16 K = 0.01° C
  179. specific heat
    the energy required to raise one unit of mass of a substance by 1° C
  180. heat of vaporization
    the amount of heat necessary to cause a phase transition btwn liquid and gas
  181. crystalline order
    a state in which atoms are arranged in a highly ordered fashion
  182. latent heat
    related to the energy needed to cause a phase transition at a fixed temp

    • Refers to the amount of energy necessary for a phase transition of a substance to change btwn a solid, liquid, or gas
    • Generally, more energy is needed to transition from a liquid to gas, as opposed to liquid from a solid
  183. recall density
    density = mass/volume
  184. heat
    the flow of energy due to a difference in temp

    • H = M x L
    • Were M = mass, L = laten heat
  185. phase transition
    an alteration of the physical state btwn a solid, liquid, and gas
  186. adjective
    a descriptive word that modifies a noun or pronoun
  187. adverb
    • a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb and indicates when, how, where, why or how much
  188. article
    a word that is used to limit a noun, either indefinite (a or an) or definite (the)
  189. clause
    a group of words that are related and contain both a subject and a verb
  190. direct object
    the noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb and answers the question whom or what
  191. possessive pronoun
    a pronoun used to indicate ownership
  192. preposition
    a word such as by, at, to or from that gives additional info, usually in relationship to something else in the sentence

    • *The boy can sit on the box, by the box, above the box, below the box, around the box, or near the box. 
    • Also includes to and from
  193. pronoun
    a word that replaces and refers to a noun
  194. verb
    a word that shows an action or a state of being (emotion)
  195. subject
    a noun or pronoun that performs the action of the verb
  196. antecedent
    the noun that a pronoun refers back to

    A pronoun and it's antecedent must agree in number, meaning whether the antecedent is singular or plural
  197. indirect vs direct dialogue
    • Indirect dialogue tells about what someone said
    • Direct dialogue tells exactly what someone said rather than telling about it

    Direct offers more specific perspective since the reader can see the exact words the speaker used, rather than just hearing about them through another person
  198. coordinating conjunctions
    • words that join two or more words, phrases, or clauses so that each conjoined element is equal: 
    • for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so
  199. subordinating conjunction
    • a word that joins two or more clauses and makes the clause that contains it dependent on another clause; therefore the clause that contains the subordinating conjunction is of less importance. 
    • Includes: because, though, although, As, As if, when, and while
  200. nominalization
    refers to the making of a noun from a verb, adverb, or adjective 

    • Ex w nominalization: He had a negative reaction to the presentation.
    • Ex w/o nominalization: He reacted negatively to the presentation.

    • It's better to replace the abstract noun with an active verb:
    • 1. My aunt made a statement that the red....
    • 2. My aunt stated that the red.....
    • *Red being the better choice
  201. Passive verbs
    • Comprised of be plus a past participle that shifts the action of a sentence from the subject to the object in the sentence:
    • The → dog → chewed → the → bone.

    • *to make it passive, action should be moved from subject (dog) to the direct object (the bone)
    • The ← bone ← was ← chewed by the ← dog

    • or more simply:
    • The bone was chewed.
  202. passive voice
    a style of writing in which the writer does not wish to assign blame (such as blaming another person for something)
  203. context clues
    words surrounding an unfamiliar word that can help in discerning the meaning of the unfamiliar word
  204. simple sentence & independent clause
    • a simple sentence is a sentence that contains only one clause that has a complete meaning -  
    • it can not contain any dependent clauses
    • because of this, it only need a subject and verb to be complete.
  205. independent clause
    a clause that has a complete meaning
  206. dependent clause
    a clause that is made dependent or incomplete cause of the addition of subordinating conjunction
  207. periodic sentence
    the meaning or point of the sentence is delayed until the end, usually in the form of an independent clause
  208. cumulative sentence
    • also known as a loose sentence
    • the independent clause of the sentence comes first and is followed by modifiers that further develop the initial idea
    • like a periodic sentence, but reversed
  209. Rules for spelling: for ie and ei words
    before e, except after c - or when sounded like a, as in "neighbor" and "weigh"
  210. Suffixes for words ending in e: 
    If a word ends in a silent e and the added suffix begins with a consonant...
    keep the letter e when adding the suffix

    • Ex: awe + some = awesome
    • hate + full = hateful
  211. Suffixes for words ending in e: 
    If a word ends in a silent e and the added suffix begins with a vowel...
    drop the letter e when adding the suffix

    • Ex:
    • age + ing = aging
    • enforce + ing = enforcing
  212. Suffixes for words ending in e: 
    EXCEPTION TO ⇉  If a word ends in a silent e and the added suffix begins with a vowel...
    If a word ends in -ce or -ge and the added suffix is -able or -ous, then keep the letter e:

    • change + able = changeable
    • courage + ous = courageous
  213. affect vs effect
    • affect (verb) - to have an effect on
    • effect (noun) something that is brought about by a cause
  214. ascent vs assent
    • ascent (noun) - a slope that angles upward
    • assent (noun) - agreement
  215. altar vs. alter
    • altar (noun) structure used in worship
    • alter (verb) to change
  216. bear vs. bare
    • bear (verb) to carry or support
    • bare ( verb) to expose
  217. capital vs capitol
    • capital (noun) a leading or governing city
    • capitol (noun) a building that houses a state's lawmakers
  218. complement vs compliment
    • complement (noun) an element that completes
    • compliment (noun) a remark of appreciation
  219. council vs counsel
    • council (noun) a body of people assembled for advice
    • counsel (noun) advice
  220. descent vs dissent
    • descent (noun) a slope that angles downward
    • dissent (noun) disagreement
  221. principal vs principle
    • principal (noun) chief or leader
    • principle (noun) a belief or rule of conduct
  222. stationary vs stationery
    • stationary (adjective) not moving
    • stationery (noun) paper for writing letters
  223. Words ending in -able or -ible
    in general, if the root work is a complete word, then add -able (if root word ends in e, drop e before adding -able) Ex: accept + able = acceptable; profit + able = profitable

    • If the root word is not a complete word, then add -ible
    • Ex: aud + ible = audible
    • horr + ible = horrible
  224. How to properly "mark" or "label" titles of chapters, articles, short poems, short stories, songs, plays, and essays
    • Quotation marks should be used
    • Ex: Before I read the next chapter, "Ten ways to be more active," I decided to take a nap.

    *Long works such as magazines, long poems, newspapers, books, etc. should be italicized or underlined  rather than enclosed in quotation marks
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2014-05-15 17:44:55

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