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2014-06-23 15:21:40
fortis PII

A&PII #3 test
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  1. what are the two main componants of blood
    • formed elements 
    • plasma
  2. what are the formed elements made up of
    • red blood cells
    • white blood cells
    • platelets
  3. what is the function of a red blood cell
    transports oxygen and helps to transport carbon dioxide
  4. what is the function of a white blood cell
    defense and immunity
  5. what are the function of platelets
    blood clotting
  6. what is plasma made up of
    • water 
    • electrolytes
    • proteins
    • wastes
    • vitamins
    • hormones
  7. what is the function of water in the blood
    solvent for carrying other substances
  8. what are the functions of electrolytes
    • osmotic balance
    • pH buffering
    • regulation of membrane permeability
  9. what is the funciton of proteins in the blood
    • osmotic balance
    • pH buffering
    • clotting
    • immunity
  10. what are the four steps of red blood cell production
    • O2 level drops
    • sensor causes kidneys to release EPO 
    • EPO causes rbc production increase which picks up more oxygen
    • oxygen levels get high enough kidneys recognize increase in oxygen and stop EPO release.
  11. what are two steps of rbc destruction
    • rbc gets old or damaged and cannot repair
    • spleen starts using macrophages that will break apart the rbc and recycle the parts
  12. what is a normal hematocrit
    • men 4,600,000-6,200,000
    • women 4,200,00-5,400,000
  13. what is a normal white blood cell count
  14. what is a normal t-cell count
  15. what are some disease that cause an incease in white cell count
    • leukocytosis
    • severe infection(appendicitis)
    • cancers like leukemia
  16. what are some diseases that cause a decrease in white cell count
    • leukopenia
    • aids
    • influenza
    • chicken pox
  17. what stimulates white blood cell production
    • activitated T-cells (interleukins)
    • colony stimulating factors
  18. not enough rbc or hemoglobin and caused by not enough iron needed to make hemoglobin
  19. to many rbc
  20. decrease in white blood cells. less than 4,000
  21. increase in white blood cells. more than 11,000
  22. part of an immune response and are some of the first cells at the sight of injury/infections
  23. part of immune response that split into dendritic cells and macrophages
  24. defender cells that remember the invaders to make you immune
  25. specialized defender cells that remember invaders
    type of agranulocyte that makes anti bodies
    b cells
  26. release a lot of heprin amd histamine(degranulation) which causes vasodilation
  27. release heprin and some histamine. kills parasites
  28. what are the steps for blood clot formation
    • damage tissue releases thromboplastin
    • thromboplastin initiates reaction that results in the production of prothrombin activator
    • prothrombin activator turms prothrombin to thrombin
    • thrombins catalyze reaction that joins fragments of fibrinogen into fibrin
    • fibrin sticks to damaged vessels to form a clot
  29. initial cut causes vessel to contract
  30. platelets adhere to rough surface and each other to form a plug to stop bleeding
    platelet plug
  31. the formation of a blood clot
  32. A+ blood type can donate to which blood types
    • A+
    • AB+
  33. A- blood type can donate to which blood types
    • A+
    • A-
    • AB+
    • AB-
  34. blood type B+ can donate to..
    • B+
    • AB-
  35. blood type B- can donate too
    • B+
    • B-
    • AB+
    • AB-
  36. blood type O+ can donate too
    • O+
    • A+
    • B+
    • AB+
  37. blood type O- can donate too..
  38. type A+ can recieve from
    • A+
    • A-
    • O+
    • O-
  39. type A- can recieve from
    • A-
    • O-
  40. type B+ can recieve from
    • B+
    • B-
    • O+
    • O-
  41. type B- can recieve from
    • B-
    • O-
  42. O+ can recieve from
    • O+
    • O-
  43. O- can recieve from
  44. type AB+ can recieve from
  45. AB+ can donate to
  46. AB- can recieve from
    • AB-
    • A-
    • B-
    • O-
  47. AB- can give to
    • AB+
    • AB-
  48. what are the boundrys of the mediastium
    • lungs
    • diaphragm
    • spinal cord
    • sternum
    • base of the neck
  49. what increases the contraction of the SA node
    • hormones
    • thoracic/lumbar nerves
  50. what can decrease the SA node firing
    impulse from vagal nerve
  51. what is the formula for blood pressure
    • CO x PR
    • (CO= stroke volume x heart rate)
  52. what factors change CO
    • stress
    • excersize
    • fear
    • anger
  53. what is the formula for for cardiac output
    stroke volume x heart rate
  54. all of  the cardiac veins draining blood from the heart will flow where prior to entering the right atrium
    coronary sinus
  55. the posterior interventicular artery is a branch that comes from
    right coronary artery
  56. O2 moves where
    across 1 layer simple squamous epitheliem in alveoli and 1 layer simple squamous in capillary by simple diffusion
  57. what runs parallel to the great cardiac vein
    anterior interventricular branch
  58. when two vertebral arteries come together they form a blood vessel called
  59. what hole do the carotid arteries pass through in the skill to reach the circle of willis
    carotid canal
  60. what do the vertebral arteries pass through to reach the brain
    • transverse foramen of the cervical vertibrae
    • magnum foramen
  61. what splits off of the brachial artery
    • radial
    • ulnar
  62. what are the 3 branches off of the celiac trunk
    • splenic
    • left gastric
    • superior mesenteric
  63. what are three stages of blood clot formation
    • vasospasm
    • coagulation
    • platelet plug formation
  64. what hormone stimulates hematopoetic stem cells to develop into erythrocytes
    erythropoetin (EPO)