Card Set Information
what is a convulsion?
sudden, involuntary contraction of the muscles of the body, often accompanied by loss of consciousness.
What is a seizure?
periodic disturbances of the brain's electrical activity.
Classified as partial (focal) or generalized
What is epilepsy?
a permanent, recurrent seizure disorder.
Path/eti= brain injury @ birth, head injuries, and inborn errors of metabolism.
What are partial seizures?
the most common type of epileptic seizure
arise from localized area in the brain
Can spread 2 the entire brain & cause a generalized seizure
Examples - simple(just stare), Jacksonian (stiffining), Psychomotor(jerking)
What are motor seizures?
with uncontrolled stiffening or jerking in one part of the body such as the finger, mouth, hand, or foot that may progress 2 the entire limb.
What is a somatosensory seizure?
a chang in taste or speech
What are generalized seizures?
Include absence, mycolonic, & tonic (contraction) and clonic (relaxation) of muscles
Loss of consciousness
What is myoclonic seizures?
involve sudden, forceful contractions of single or multiple groups of muscles.
What is status epilecticus?
characterized by continual seizure activity w/ no interruption
May result from abrupt discontinuation of medication
Diazepam most often inital treatment
What is the general action of an anticonvulsant?
reduce the excitability of brain neurons
What are the uses?
Prophylactically (head trauma, tumor in brain)
Seizures of all types
What are adverse reactions?
Drowsiness, weakness, dizziness
Nystagmus (crossed eyes)
Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, constipation, diarrhea
Gingival hyperplasia (stomatitis)
Pancytopenia (blood levels decreased anemia)
What are barbiturates?
Used for status epilpticus, focal seizure,& tonic-clonic seizures
A/R = bradycardia, hypoventilation, skin rash
Remember! This is a sedative/hypnotic
What is Benzodiazepines?
Examples---clonazepam, diazepam, lorazepam
A/R =---sedation, anorexia, constipation, diarrhea, dry mouth, visual disturbances,
What are Hydatoins?
Most commonly prescribed anticonvulsant
ataxia, slurred speech, mental changes, rashes, nausea, vomiting, gingival hyperplasia, hematologic changes, hepatoxicity
MONITOR DILANTIN TOXICITY
What are s/s of Dilantin toxicity
Rapid eye movement
Slurred speech or difficulty speaking
Problems w/ coordination or balance
Unusual body movements or shakiness
Teach client monitor Dilantin levels monthly & CBC
Normal levels 10-20mcg per mL
Above 20mcg = NYSTAGMUS (crossed eyes) CALL DR
Above 30mcg= Mental changes, Ataxia (gait off)
What are Oxaolidmediones?
Given 4 Epilepsy. Example-
nausea / vomiting
NURSE= TELL DON'T DRIVE WHEN TAKING AND WEAR SUNSCREEN OR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
What are Succinimides?
NURSE= TELL CLIENTS 2 TAKE WITH FOOD 2 PREVENT GI UPSET
What are Carboxylic Acid Derivatives?
Epilepsy, Mania, Migraines
Irritates anything it touches
Stephen Johnson syndrome
NURSE= TELL CLIENT DONT CHEW SWALLOW WHOLE MIX W/ PUDDING. MAIN GOAL PREVENT MOUTH SORES
What are Misc. Anticonvulsants?
UNRELATED 2 OTHER ANTICONVULSANTS
What is a general assessment of seizure activity?
Description of seizure (motor and psych activity)
Frequency of the seizures (how many per day)
Average length of time of a seizure
Description of aura
Description of degree of impairment of conciousness
Description of what, if anything appears 2 bring on seizure
Nurse duties on anticonvulsants
DON'T STICK ANYTHING IN CLIENT'S MOUTH WHILE HAVING SEIZURE
TAKE V/S RIGHT AFTER SEIZURES
DON'T STOP TAKING ANTICONVULSANTS ABRUPTLY OR SKIP MEDS
DON'T DRINK ALCOHOL
WEAR MEDICAL BRACELET
DON'T SKIP APPTS. 2 MONITOR TOX LEVELS
When taking anticonvulsants and a dose is skipped what might happen?
recurrence of seizures
so make sure u teach them 2 not skip doses!!