A&P Final Exam Study Guide

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A&P Final Exam Study Guide
2014-05-13 14:35:44
final exam
Anatomy and Physiology
Human Anatomy & Physiology 9th ed
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  1. Anatomical Position
    • the body is erect with the feet slightly apart
    • "standing at attention"
  2. Body planes
    • Frontal plane - anterior and posterior
    • Sagittal plane - right and left
    • Median/Midsagittal - right and left in the middle
    • Transverse - horizontally (superior and inferior)
    • Oblique - diagonal
  3. Dorsal body cavity
    contains cranial cavity, vertebral cavity
  4. Ventral body cavity
    contains thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity
  5. Cranial cavity
    contains brain
  6. Vertebral cavity
    contains spinal cord
  7. Thoracic cavity
    contains heart and lungs
  8. Pericardial cavity
    contains heart
  9. Pleural cavity
    contains lungs
  10. Superior mediastinum
    above heart
  11. Abdominopelvic cavity
    • abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity
    • contains digestive viscera, urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
  12. Abdominal cavity
    contains digestive viscera
  13. Pelvic Cavity
    contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
  14. Abdominopelvic Quadrants
    • right upper quadrant
    • left upper quadrant
    • right lower quadrant
    • left lower quadrant
  15. Abdominopelvic Regions
    • Umbilical - centermost region
    • Epigastric - above umbilical region
    • Hypogastric (pubic) - below umbilical region
    • R&L Iliac - lateral to hypogastric region
    • R&L Lumbar - lie lateral to umbilical region
    • R&L Hypochondriac - lateral to epigastric [deep to ribs]
  16. Histology
    branch of anatomy dealing with the microscopic  structure of tissues
  17. Negative Feedback Mechanisms
    • The net effect is that the output of the system shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity
    • The most common homeostatic control mechanism
  18. Positive Feedback Mechanisms
    Feedback that tends to cause the level of a variable to change in the same direction as an initial chanage
  19. Homeostasis
    A state of body equilibrium or stable internal environment of the body
  20. Epidermis
    • outermost protective shield of the body
    • composed of epithelial cells
    • protection
  21. Dermis
    • deeper than epidermis
    • tough, leathery layer composed mostly of fibrous connective tissue
  22. Hypodermis
    subcutaneous tissue just deep to the skin
  23. Papillary layer
    • thin superficial areolar tissue
    • top of dermis
    • contains dermal papillae, friction ridges
  24. Dermal papillae
    projections of dermal tissue into the epidermis
  25. friction ridges
    assumed to enhance the gripping ability of the fingers and feet like tire treads help grip the road
  26. Reticular Layer
    • 80% of dermis
    • cutaneous plexus - nourishes this layer (between hypodermis and reticular layer)
    • contains cleavage lines, flexure lines
  27. Cleavage (tension) lines
    • represent separations between underlying collagen fiber bundles in the reticular regionof the dermis
    • circle around trunk - longitudinal in limbs
  28. Flexure lines
    • lines form where the dermis is closely attached to the underlying fascia
    • ex: lines in hands
  29. Hairs / pili
    • flexible strands produced by hair follicles
    • consist largely of dead, keratinized cells
    • 3 layers - medulla, cortex, cuticle
  30. Arrector pili muscle
    makes hair stand up
  31. Sweat (sudiferous) glands
    • epidermal gland that produces sweat
    • eccrine sweat glands - palms, soles of the feet, and forehead
    • appocrine sweat glands - axillary and anogenital
  32. Sebaceous (Oil) Glands
    epidermal glands that produce an oil secretion called sebum
  33. Functions of Integumentary System
    • Protection: chemical barriers (acid mantle) - physical barriers - biological barriers (dendritic cells, macrophages, DNA)
    • Body Temperature Regulation: perspiration
    • Metabolic Functions:
    • Blood Reservoir
    • Excretion
  34. Diaphysis
    elongated shaft of the long bone
  35. Epiphysis
    the end of a long bone, attached to the shaft
  36. Epiphyseal plate/line
    plate of hyaline cartilage at the junction of the diaphysis and epiphysis that provides for growth in length of a long bone
  37. Haversion system
    • Also called Osteon
    • System of interconneting canals in the microscopic structure of adult compact bone
  38. Bone marrow
    • fat- or blood-forming tissue found within bone cavities
    • red (epiphysis) or yellow (shaft) bone marrow
  39. Osteogenic cell
    stem cell
  40. Osteoblast
    Matrix-synthesizing cell responsible for bone growth
  41. Osteocyte
    Mature bone cell that monitors and maintains the mineralized bone matrix
  42. Osteoclast
    Bone-resorbing cell
  43. Axial skeleton
    skull, vertebrae, ribs
  44. Appendicular skeleton
    arms, legs, pelvic gurdle, pectoral gurdle
  45. Hyoid bone
    floating bone, attached to tongue
  46. Cervical vertebrae
    • seven vertebrae
    • neck bones
    • mouse shaped
  47. Atlas
    • C1
    • top cervical vertebrae
  48. Axis
    • C2
    • second from top cervical vertebrae
  49. Thoracic vertebrae
    • middle vertebrae
    • 12 vertebrae
    • giraffe shaped
  50. lumbar vertebrae
    • lowest vertebrae
    • five vertebrae
    • moose-like
  51. Sacrum
    • triangular bone
    • below lumbar vertebrae
  52. Coccyx
    • bottom of sacrum
    • tailbone
  53. Scoliosis
    lateral curvature of the spine
  54. Kyphosis
    • dorsal thoracic curvature of the spine
    • hunchback
  55. Lordosis
    • dorsal, lumbar cuvature of the spine
    • swayback
  56. Herniated (prolapsed) disc
    slipped disc
    rupture of the anulus fibrosus followed by a protrusion of the spongy nucleus pulposus through the anulus
  57. Weight bearing bones
    foot (phalanges, tarsals, metatarsals), tibia, femur
  58. Myofibrils
    • single muscle fiber contains hundreds to thousands of rod-like myofibrils that run parallel to its length
    • [red, actin-binding sites]
  59. Sarcomere
    • smallest contractile unit of muscle
    • extends from one Z disc to the next
    • "muscle segment"
  60. striations
    • a repeating series of dark (A bands) and light (I bands) bands, evident along the length of each myofibril
    • H zone - midsection of A band (M line - dark line, bisects H zone)
    • Z disc - midline interruption of I band
  61. Filaments
    • Thick filaments - myosin (walking heads)
    • Thin filaments - actin, tropomyosin, troponin
    • Elastic filaments - titan
  62. Actin
    • bear the active sites to which the myosin heads attach during contraction
    • [blue, kidney-shaped polypeptide subunit]
  63. Tropomyosin
    • rod-shaped protein, spiral about the actin core and help stiffen and stabilize it
    • helix around actin
  64. Troponin
  65. other major protein in thin filaments
    three-polypeptide complex
  66. Sliding filament model of contractions
    • When the nervous system stimulates muscle fibers, the myosin heads on the thick filaments latch onto myosin-binding sites on actin in the thin filaments, and the sliding begins
    • These cross bridge attachments form and break several times during a contraction, acting like tiny ratchets to generate tension and propel the thin filaments toward the center of the sarcomere
    • As this event occurs simultaneously in sarcomeres throughout the cell, the muscle cell shortens
  67. Tendon
    ropelike, muscle connective tissue wrappings
  68. Aponeurosis
    sheetlike, muscle connective tissue wrappings
  69. Events at the Neuromuscular Junction
    • 1. Action potential arrives at axon terminal of motor neuron.
    • 2. Voltage-gated Ca2+channels open. Ca2+ enters the axon terminal moving down its electochemical gradient.
    • 3. Ca2+ causes AChto be released by exocytosis.
    • 4. ACh diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to its receptors on the sarcolemma.
    • 5. ACh binding opens ion channels in the receptors that allow simultaneous passage of Na+ into the muscle fiber and K+ out of the muscle fiber. More Na+ ions enter than K+ ions exit, which produces a local change in the membrane potential called the end plate potential.
    • 6. ACh effects are terminated by its breakdown in the synaptic cleft by acetyholinesterase and diffusion away from the junction
  70. Excitation-Contraction Coupling
    • 1. The action potential propagates along the sarcolemma and down the T tubules
    • 2. Calcium ions ares released
    • 3. Calcium binds to troponin and removes the blocking action of tropomyosin
    • 4. Contraction begins
  71. Cross Bridge Cycle
    • 1. Cross bridge formation
    • 2. The power (working) stroke
    • 3. Cross bridge detachment
    • 4. Cocking of the myosin head
  72. Muscle Tone
    • Even relaxed muscles are slightly contracted
    • - does not produce active movements, but it keeps the muscles firm, healthy, and ready to respond to stimulation
    • This is due to spinal reflexes that activate first one group of motor units and then another in response to activated stretch receptors in the muscle
  73. Neuron
    nerve cells
  74. Neuron cell body
    • major biosynthetic center of a neuron and receptive region
    • spherical nucleus with a conspicuous nucleolus surrounded by cytoplasm
  75. Dendrites
    • Receptive regions
    • short, tapering, diffusely branching extensions
  76. Axon
    • impulse-generating and impulse-conducting region
    • a slender process that is uniform in diameter for the rest of its length
    • Axon hillock - initial region of the axon ("little hill")
    • Nerve fiber - any long axon
  77. Node of Ranvier
    myelin sheath gap
  78. Generation of an Action Potential
    • 1. Resting State: all gated Na+ and K+ channels are closed
    • 2. Depolarization: Na+ channels open
    • 3. Repolarization: Na+ channels are inactivating, and K+ channels open
    • 4. Hyperpolarization: some K+ channels remain open, and Na+ channels reset
  79. Chemical synapses transmit signals from one neuron to another using neurotransmitters
    • 1. Action potential arrives at axon terminal
    • 2. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open and Ca2+ enters the axon terminal
    • 3. Ca2+ entry causes synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitter by exocytosis
    • 4. Neurotransmitter diffused across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
    • 5. Binding of neurotransmitter opens ion channels, resulting in graded potentials
    • 6. Neurotransmitter effects are terminated by reuptake through transport proteins, enzymatic degradation,or diffusion away from the synapse
  80. Cerebral Hemispheres
    • Cerebral Cortex, "executive suite" - motor areas, sensory areas, association areas - contralateral
    • Cerebral White Matter - responsible for communication between cerebral areas - myelinated fibers: assocation fibers, commissural fibers, projection fibers
    • Basal Nuclei -
  81. Diencephalon
    • Thalamus - relay station for information coming into the cerebral cortex
    • Hypothalamus - main visceral control center of the body
    • Epithalamus - pineal gland: secretes melatonin
  82. Brain Stem
    • Midbrain - relays information for vision and hearing, dopamine production
    • Pons - composed of conduction tracts
    • Medulla Oblongata - cardiovascular center, respiratory centers
  83. Cerebellum
    • "small brain"
    • thinking, language, emotion
  84. Central Nervous System vs Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • CNS: brain and spinal cord - integrative and control centers
    • PNS: cranial nerves and spinal nerves - communication lines between the CNS and the restof the body
  85. Somatic Nervous System vs Autonomic Nervous System
    • SNS: somatic motor (voluntary) - conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles
    • ANS: visceral motor (involuntary) - conducts impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands
  86. Sympathetic division vs Parasympathetic division
    • Sympathetic division: mobilizes body systems during activity
    • Parasympathetic: conserves energy - promotes house-keeping functions during rest
  87. Hormones
    long-distance chemical signals; travel in blood or lymph
  88. Parathyroid Hormone
    • Parathyroid gland
    • Enhancesreabsorption of Ca2+ by the kidneys
    • Stimulates osteoclasts to digest some of the bony matrix and release ionic calcium and phosphates to the blood
    • Promotes activation of vitamin D, thereby increasing absorption of Ca2+ by intestinal mucosal cells
  89. Growth Hormone
    • tissue building hormone with metabolic and growth-promoting actions
    • From pituitary
  90. Gonadotropic Hormone
    • follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
    • Regulate the function of the gonads (ovaries and testies)
  91. Thyroid Hormones
    • T3/T4
    • body's major metabolic hormone: increasing metabolic rate, regulating tissue growth and development, maintaining blood pressure
  92. Erythropoietin
    controls red blood cell production
  93. Hematopoietic stem cell
    hemocytoblasts - forms myeloid stem cell or lymphoid stem cell
  94. Lymphoid stem cell
    creates T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes (some become plasma cells, some become effector T cells)
  95. Myeloid stem cell
    • Becomes myeloblasts or monoblasts
    • Monoblast - (promonocyte) monocytes, some becomes macrophages
    • Myeloblast - become eosinophils, basophils, nerutrophils
  96. Granular leukocytes
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
    • Neutrophils
  97. Agranular leukocytes
    • Monocytes
    • B lymphocytes
    • T lymphocytes
  98. Blood typing of ABO blood types
    • Type AB - contains agglutinogens A and B
    • Type A - contains agglutinogens A
    • Type B - contains agglutinogens B
    • Type O - no agglutinogens
  99. Hemostasis
    • Fast series of reactions for stoppage of bleeding
    • requires clotting factors, and substances released by platelets and injured tissues
    • 3 steps: vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation (blood clotting)
  100. Pericardium
    • Coverings of the heart
    • Fibrous pericardium - (superficial) protects, anchors, prevents overfilling
    • Serous Pericardium - parietal layer: lines internal surface - visceral layer: external surface - separated by pericardial cavity
  101. 3 Layers of the Heart Wall
    • Epicardium - visceral layer of serous pericardium
    • Myocardium - - spiral bundles of contractile cardiac muscle cells - cardiac skeleton
    • Endocardium - lines heart chambers; covers cardiac skeleton of valves
  102. Chambers of heart
    • Two superior atria
    • Two inferior ventricles
    • Interatrial septum - separates atria
    • Intraventricular septum - separates ventricles
  103. Atrium
    • Three veins empty into right atrium
    • Four pulmonary veins empty into left atrium
  104. Ventricles
    • right - most of anterior surface
    • left - posterioinferior surface
    • Trabeculae carneae - irregular ridges of muscle on walls
    • Papillary muscles - anchor chordae tendineae
  105. Heart Valves
    • Tricuspid valve - right atrioventricular valve
    • Mitral valve (bicuspid) - left atriventricular valve
    • Chordae tendineae - anchor cusps to papillary muscles
    • 2 semilunar valves - prevent backflow into ventricles when ventricles relax
  106. Blood Flow Through the Heart
    vena cava - right atrium - right ventricle - pulmonary trunk - lungs - pulmonary arteries - four pulmonary veins - left atrium - left ventricle - aorta - to body - vena cava
  107. Pulmonary Circuit
    • right atrium - tricuspid valve - right ventricle
    • right ventricle - pulmonary semilunar valve - pulmonary trunk - pulmonary arteries - lungs
    • lungs - pulmonary veins - left atrium
  108. Systemic Circuit
    • left atrium - mitral valve - left ventricle
    • left ventricle - aortic semilunar valve - aorta
    • aorta - systemic circulation
  109. Functions of Blood
    • Distributing substances
    • Regulating blood levels of substances
    • Protection
  110. Lymphatic vessels
    • return interstitial fluid and leaked plasma proteins back to blood
    • Lymphatic capillaries
    • Collecting lymphatic vessels
    • Lymphatic trunks
    • one-way system
  111. Lacteals
    • specialized lymph capillaries present in intestinal mucosa
    • Absorb digested fat and deliver fatty lymph to the blood
  112. Lymphatic Collecting Vessels
    • similar to veins except, thinner walls with more internal valves
    • collecting vessels in skin travel with superficial veins
    • deep vessels travel arteries
    • lymphatic vessels drain into lymphatic trunks
  113. Lymphatic Ducts
    • Right lymphatic duct - drains right upper arm and right side of head and thorax
    • Thoracic duct - drains rest of body
    • Each empties lymph into venous circulation at junction of internal jugular and subclavian veins on its own side of body
  114. Lymph Transport
    Lymph propelled by
    • Milking action of skeletal muscle
    • Pressure changes in thorax during breathing
    • Valves to prevent backflow
    • Pulsations of nearby arteries
    • Contractions of smooth muscle in walls of lymphatics
  115. Lymphocytes
    • main warriors of immune system
    • Matures into T cells or B cells
  116. T cells
    • Manage immune response
    • Attack and destroy infected cells
  117. B cells
    Produce plasma cells which secrete antibodies
  118. Macrophages
    • phagocytize foreign substances
    • help activate T cells
  119. Dendritic cells
    capture antigens and deliver them to lymph nodes
  120. Lymph Nodes
    • Filter lymph
    • Immune activation - lymphocytes activated and mount attack against antigens
    • Medullary cords extend inward from cortex and contain B cells, T cells, and plasma cells
    • Lymph sinuses contain macrophages
  121. Spleen
    Large lymphoid organ
    • Site of lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response
    • Cleanses blood of aged cells and platelets, macrophages remove debris
    • Stores products of RBC destruction for reuse
    • Stores platelets and monocytes until
    • needed
  122. Thymus
    • Important functions early in life
    • Increases in size and most active during childhood
  123. Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue
    • Lymphoid tissues in mucous membranes throughout body
    • MALT in - tonsils, Peyer's patches, appendix
    • Protects from pathogens trying to enter body
    • Also in mucosa of respiratory and genitourinary organs; rest of digestive tract
  124. Tonsils
    Simplest lymphoidorgans
    • Gather and remove pathogens from food and air
    • Form ring of lymphatic tissue around pharynx
    • (Palatine tonsils, Lingual tonsil, Pharyngeal tonsil-adenoid, Tubal tonsils)
  125. Peyer's Patches
    • Clusters of lymphoid follicles
    • In wall of distal portion of small intestine
    • Similar structures are also found in the appendix
    • Peyer's patches and appendix: destroy bacteria, preventing them from breaching intestinal wall, generate "memory" lymphocytes
  126. Immune System
    Two intrinsic systems
    • Innate defenses: surface barriers, internal defenses
    • surface barriers (skin, mucous membranes)
    • internal defenses (phagocytes, natural killer cells, inflammation, antimicrobial proteins, fever)
    • Adaptive defenses: Humoral immunity (B cells), Cellular immunity (T cells)
  127. Surface Barriers
    • Surface barriers ward off invasive pathogens
    • Protective chemicals inhibit or destroy microorganisms (acidity of skin and secretions)
  128. Phagocytosis
    • 1. Phagocyte adheres to pathogens or debris
    • 2. Phagocyte forms pseudopods that eventually engulf the particles, forming a phagosome
    • 3. Lysosome fuses with the phagocytic vesicle, formin a phagolysosome
    • 4. Lysosomal enzymes digest the particles, leaving a residual body
    • 5. Exocytosis of the vesicle removes indigestible and residual material
  129. Phagocyte Mobilization
    • 1. Lekocytosis - neutrophils enter blood from bone marrow
    • 2. Margination - neutrophils cling to capillary wall
    • 3. Diapedesis - neutrophils flatten and squeeze out of capillaries
    • 4. Chemotaxis - neutrophils follow chemical trail
  130. Natural Killer Cells
    • Attack cells that lack "self" cell-surface receptors
    • Induce apoptosis in cancer cells and virus-infected cells
    • Secrete potent chemicals that enhance inflammatory response
  131. Inflammatory Response
    • Triggered whenever body tissues injured
    • Prevents spread of damaging agents
    • Disposes of cell debris and pathogens
    • Alerts adaptive immune system
    • Sets the stage for repair
  132. Fever
    • Abnormally high body temperature
    • Systemic response to invading microorganisms
    • Leukocytes and macrophages exposed to  foreign substances secrete pyrogens
    • Pyrogens act on body's thermostat in hypothalamus, raising body temperature
  133. Humoral Immunity
    Active / naturally acquired
    infection; contact with pathogen
  134. Humoral Immunity
    Active / artificially acquired
    vaccine; dead or attenuated pathogens
  135. Humoral Immunity
    Passive / naturally acquired
    Antibodies passed from mother to fetus via placenta; or to infant in her milk
  136. Humoral Immunity
    Passive / artificially acquired
    Injection of exogenous antibodies (gamma globulin)
  137. Pulmonary Ventilation
    • movement of air into and out of lungs
    • Respiratory system
  138. External Respiration
    • O2 and CO2 exchange between lungs and blood
    • Respiratory system
  139. Transport
    • O2 and CO2 in blood
    • Circulatory system
  140. Internal respiration
    • O2 and Co2 exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues
    • Circulatory system
  141. Nose
    • Provides an airway for respiration
    • Moistens and warms entering air
    • Filters and cleans inspired air
    • Serves as resonating chamber for speech
    • Houses olfactory receptors
    • Divided by midline nasal septum
  142. Nasal vestibule
    • nasal cavity superior to nostrils
    • skin containing sweat and sebaceous glands and hair follicles
  143. Nasal Conchae
    superior, middle, and inferior
    • protrude medially from lateral walls
    • increase mucosal area
    • enhance air turbulence (help filter out large particles before air reaches the lungs)
    • filter, heat, moisten air
    • Nasal Meatus: Groove inferior to each nasal concha
  144. Rhinitis
    Inflammation of nasal mucosa
  145. Pharynx
    • Connects nasal cavity and mouth to larynx and esophagus
    • Nasopharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Laryngopharynx
  146. Larynx
    • Provides airway
    • Routes air and food into proper channels
    • Voice production—houses vocal folds (cords)
    • Attaches to hyoid bone
    • All hyaline cartilage except epiglottis
  147. Epiglottis
    • elastic cartilage
    • covers laryngeal inlet during swallowing; covered in taste bud-containing mucosa
  148. Vocal ligaments
    • form true vocal cords
    • appear white because they lack blood vessels
    • vibrate to produce sound as air rushes up from lungs
  149. Vestibular folds
    • (false vocal cords)
    • superior to vocal folds
    • no part in sound production
    • help to close glottis during swallowing
  150. Trachea
    • Windpipe
    • Trachealis muscle - connects posterior parts of cartilage rings - contracts during coughing to expel mucus
    • Carina - point where trachea branches into two main bronchi
  151. Conducting Zone Structures
    Respiratory System
    Trachea - right and left main bronchi - lobar bronchi (three on right, two on left) - segmental bronchi
  152. Respiratory Zone
    • terminal bronchioles - respiratory bronchioles - alveolar ducts - alveolar sacs
    • Alveoli - sites of gas exchange - make up most of lung volume
  153. Pleurae
    • Parietal pleura - on thoracic wall, superior face of diaphragm, around heart, between lungs
    • Visceral pleura - on external lung surface
    • Pleural fluid - fills slitlike pleural cavity - provides lubrication and surface tension, which assists in expansion and recoil
  154. Mechanics of Breathing
    • Inspiration - gases flow into lungs
    • Expiration - gases exit lungs
  155. Boyle's Law
    • Gases fill container; if container size reduced, the pressure increases
    • P1V1=P2V2
  156. Dalton's Law
    (of Partial Prssures)
    Total pressure exerted by mixture of gases = sum of pressures exerted by each gas
  157. Henry's Law
    Gas mixtures in contact with liquid: each gas dissolves in proportion to its partial pressure - amount of each gas that will dissolve depends on solubility and temperature
  158. COPD
    Chronic Obstructibe PUlmonary Disease
    • Emphysema - enlargement of alveoli, causes lungs to lose elasticity
    • Chronic Bronchitis - production of excessive mucus
  159. Digestive System
    • Gastrointestinal tract - extends from the mouth to the anus, along with accessory glands
    • brings food into the body - digest it into nutrients that are absorbed by the body - eliminate wastes out of the body
  160. major GI tract components
    • mouth
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • anus
  161. Accessory Organs of digestive system
    • Salivary glands (enzymes)
    • Pancreas (enzymes)
    • Liver (bile)
    • Gallbladder
  162. Digestive Processes
    • Ingestion
    • Mechanical Breakdown
    • Propulsion
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
    • Defacation
  163. Peritoneum
    • serous membrane of abdominal cavity
    • Visceral/Parietal peritoneum
  164. Mucosa
    • (Lines lumen)
    • Secrets mucus, digestive enzymes, and hormones - absorbs end products of digestion - protects against infectious disease
  165. Epithelium
    • Simple columnar epithelium and mucus-secreting cells (most of tract)
    • Mucus: protects digestive organs from enzymes – eases food passage
    • may secrete enzymes and hormones
  166. Mouth
    Oral cavity
  167. Oral Vestibule
    recess internal to lips (labia) and cheeks, external to teeth and gums
  168. Labial frenulum
    median attachment of each lip to gum
  169. Tongue
    • Repositioning and mixing food during chewing  - Formation of bolus - Initiation of swallowing, speech, and taste
    • Intrinisic muscles change shape of tongue
    • Extrinsic muscles alter tongue's position
  170. Extrinsic salivary glands
    • Produce most saliva
    • lie outside oral cavity
  171. Intrinsic salivary glands
    • scattered throughout oral cavity
    • augment slightly
  172. Saliva
    • Cleanses mouth
    • Dissolves food chemicals for taste
    • Moistens food; compacts into bolus
    • Begins breakdown of starch with enzymes
    • (slightly acidic)
  173. Esophagus
    • passage that connects the pharynx to the stomach.
    • no digestive processes occur here.
    • food is moved along via peristalsis.
  174. Acid reflux
    • "heartburn" occurs when partially digested food comes back up into the esophagus and
    • produces a burning sensation
  175. Stomach
    • Stores food
    • Adds digestive enzymes and acids that begin chemical digestion of proteins
    • Turns food into a soupy mixture called chyme
  176. Pepsin
    begins the digestion of proteins
  177. Small intestine
    • 6 meters long
    • primary site of digestion
  178. Large intestine
    • water, salts, and vitamins are absorbed 
    • feces stored until excreted from the body
  179. Bile
    digests lipids
  180. Amylase
    starches into sugars
  181. Colon
    • largest portion of the large intestine
    • contains beneficial bacteria which act on indigestible material, product B complex vitamins, and most of the vitamin K needed for clotting of blood
  182. Layers of supportive tissue in kidneys
    • Renal fascia = "anchors" kidney
    • Perirenal fat capsule = cushions kidney
    • FIbrous capsule = prevents infections from surrounding area
  183. Ureters
    paired tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
  184. Urinary bladder
    a temporary storage reservoir for urine
  185. Urethra
    a tube that carries urine from the bladder to the body exterior
  186. Blood flower through the kidney
    aorta - renal artery - segmental artery - interlobar artery - arcuate artery - cortical radiate artery - afferent arteriole - glomerulus (capillaries) - efferent arteriole - Pertibular capillaries - cortical radiate vein - arcuate vein - interlobar vein - renal vein - inferior vena cava
  187. Nephron
    • Renal corpuscle/glomerulus - fed and drained by afferent and efferent arterioles - filtration unit
    • Renal tubule - begins in cortex, passes into medulla - 3 parts - reabsorb water and solutes needed by the body
  188. Urine Formation
    • 1. Glomerular Filtration
    • 2. Tubular Reabsorption
    • 3. Tubular Secretion