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  1. Hinduism

    • ◦Infinite Spirit, True Reality, Ultimate,
    • Existent


    ◦Self, True Self, Immortal Soul, Spirit


    • ◦Avatar of Vishnu, maintains order,
    • associated with cows


    • ◦Discipline; Physical, mental, and
    • spiritual practices that help a person understand reality


    • ◦Duty, sacred duty, law, order; determined
    • by class, age, family relationships; maintains universal harmony


    • ◦Devotion; disciplined action without
    • attachment
    • —Attachment and Fruits of Action

    ◦Conflicts with dharma; craving

    —Senses/Sensuous Objects

    • ◦Must be controlled by the mind and
    • intellect


    • ◦Action, system of actions and
    • consequences


    ◦Cycle of birth-death-rebirth


    • ◦Escape from Samsara; rejoining of atman
    • with Brahman

  2. Buddism

    • ◦Three
    • Types: Pain, Change and Knowledge of Change


    • ◦Desire,
    • wanting anything; Caused by ignorance


    • ◦Cycle
    • of re-death; Inherently unpleasant


    • ◦Extinguishing;
    • Blowing out; Not a state of being or a place


    • ◦System
    • of actions and consequences


    • ◦Necessary
    • because everything is interconnected
    • through cause and effect; nothing exists independently
    • —No-Self

    • ◦No
    • permanent, independent self or soul; Illusion created by arrangement of five
    • parts (aggregates)


    • ◦Awareness,
    • control over the mind and senses

    • —Skillful
    • Means

    • ◦Teaching
    • what is most important and appropriate at that moment

  3. Confusism

    • ◦Rites and practices on specific
    • occasions; daily etiquette; cultivating personality


    • ◦Sincerity and intention – cognitive and
    • behavioral; mold yourself; development of a type of character/disposition
    • through practicing overtime

    —Filial Piety

    • ◦Starting point for peaceful society –
    • trickle up and down; internal and external component

    —Teaching and Learning

    • ◦Practice and observation, not
    • theoretical; No formula

    • ◦Importance
    • of Interpersonal Relationship
  4. Daoism

    • ◦Cosmic principle, transcendent source of
    • and pattern for everything in the cosmos, the way things are or should be


    • ◦Spontaneous action,
    • acting with the Dao, free and easy wandering, matching heavenly with heavenly


    • ◦No eternal categories like “beautiful”
    • vs. “ugly,” false fixities, value the de-valued, useful and useless, words are
    • limited


    • ◦Aiming for big-picture, more than just
    • “us,” recognizing other perceptions, flexibility, avoid attachment


    • ◦Forget rigid distinctions and differences
    • of perspective, forget yourself so you can follow the Dao
  5. Shintoism

    • ◦Harmony;
    • achieve balance between each other and the spirits


    • ◦Spirits;
    • ancestors and gods

    • —Mono
    • No Aware

    • ◦Appreciation
    • of change


    • ◦Supports
    • and supported by Shintoism, Emperor (and therefore Japanese) descendants of
    • divine


    • ◦Incorporates
    • aspects of other religions Confucianism (social harmony, relationships),
    • Buddhism (afterlife), Daoism (change as natural), and Christianity (marriage)


    • ◦Guidance
    • for ethics, social behavior, ritual; build identity; cosmology; establish
    • tradition

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