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- 100 days reform
- constitutional monarchy
1885 Bandung Conference
- -promote Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation and to oppose colonialism or neocolonialism by any nations
- -non-aligned movement
indian national congress
- create platform for civic and dialogue of educated Indians with British Raj
- gathered to formulate petition that it present to government as unitary voice
what do hindus belief about Muslims and Christians?
their holy land is further off; they are not children of this soil, their names and love are divided.
- transformed the Congress from an elite talking shop into a mass movement.
- (1889-1964) first Indian prime Minister
- Congress President in 1929, Nehru called for complete independence from the British
- Nehru took a leading role in Non-Alignment
- oversaw India's transition from a monarchy to a republic, while nurturing a plural, multi-party democracy
three major movements of Gandhi
- noncooperation (1920-1922)
- salt march (1930)
- quit india (1942)
non cooperation movement
protest through nonviolent means (boycott goods, adopt local handicrafts)
why did non cooperation come about? satyagraha
- colonial oppression
- chuck of wealth delivered to Britain
- British products replace local Indian products
- Indian soldiers dying in British wars
- supported by Indian National Congress
- ineffective propanganda with nonviolent protesters and British beating them
- 1930 resistance against British tax
- salt as symbolism illegitimate government would deprive people of basic necessities.
- Gandhi called "an orderly British withdrawal" from India. The British refused to grant immediate independence, saying it could happen only after the war ended.
- failed b/c many people benefited from heavy wartime spending; however it made Britain realize India was ungovernable
- 1947 august 15
- division of British India into two dominions including Punjab and Bengal
- cessation of princely states
- est. of border commission in event of partition
- declared date of independence
Pakistan came into being with two non-contiguous enclaves, East Pakistan (today Bangladesh) and West Pakistan, separated geographically by India. India was formed out of the majority Hindu
- 1876-1948 founder of Pakistan
- leader of all indian muslim league from 1913 to 1947
- at first advocated Hindu Muslim unity
- resigned from INC when it supported Gandhi, believed Indian muslims should have own state (1940)
- aided migrants, forming refugee camps
east pakistan independece
India's Nehru and Indonesia's Sukarno were cofounders of the bloc
human right in czech