Genital flashcards 2

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jaz_walker
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273849
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Genital flashcards 2
Updated:
2014-05-09 07:56:46
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pathology
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pathology
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pathology
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  1. 1. A 23 year old female has an abortion in her first term. Broadly what causes are there for this?
    Abnormal fetuses
  2. 2. A 23 year old female has an abortion in her second term. Broadly what causes are there for this?
    Mainly uterine abnormalities
  3. 3. A 23 year old female has an abortion in her third term. Broadly what causes are there for this?
    Mainly maternal abnormalities - Eclampsia, placental haemorrhage, abruption
  4. 4. A 36 year old woman presents with infertility. Ultrasound shows multiple enlarged Graffian follicles which look like a 'string of pearls'. How are their levels of LH, ostrogen and FSH and androgen?
    PCOS - high LH and oestragen and testosterone, low FSH.
  5. 5. A 36 year old woman presents with pelvic pain. Ultrasound shows multiple enlarged Graffian follicles. What 2 conditions can cause this?
    Mild endometrial hyperplasia and polycystic ovary syndrome
  6. 6. A 67 year old woman presents with ovarian cancer. She mentions her mother also had ovarian cancer. What 2 genes are associated with heriditary ovarian cancer?
    BRCA 1, BRCA 2
  7. 7. A 32 year old woman presents with pelvic pain. On examination, the cervix is tender. You find lyphocytic and plasma cell infiltrate. What 3 infectious organisms might you suspect?
    Chronic cervicitis - trichomonas, candida, gardnerella
  8. 8. A 45 year old man presents with a testicular mass. It is lumescent. What are the 2 main causes?
    primary (congenital patency of the processus vaginalis), secondary (tumours, epididymitis, mumps, acute orchitis)
  9. 9. A 67 year old woman has been diagnosed with ovarian cancer. What are the 3 types of ovarian cancer?
    Surface epithelial tumours (70%), germ cell tumours (20%), sex cord and stromal (10%)
  10. 10. A 34 year old woman presents with infertility. On endometrial endoscopy, you find chronic endometritis. What are the 4 most common reasons for this?
    Recent pregnancy or instrumentation, chronic PID, intrauterine contraceptive device, tuberculosis
  11. 11. A 54 year old woman presents with post-menstrual bleeding. what are the main 3 risk factors for endometrial adenocarcinoma?
    hyperoestrogenic state, pelvic irradiation, low parity
  12. 12. A 27 year old woman presents with a foul-smelling vaginal discharge, which is thin and greyish and sometimes shows bubbles. Gram negative coccobacilli. What bacterium is involved here?
    Gardnerella vaginalis
  13. 13. A 87 year old woman presents with a wart. On biopsy, it shows VIN. What carcinoma is associated?
    Squamous cell carcinoma - low risk of transformation
  14. 14. A 18 year old male presents with a testicular tumour. What cells was it most likely to derive from?
    Germ cell tumour
  15. 15. A 58 year old woman is being investigated for post-menopausal bleeding. A solid teratoma is found. What classification of ovarian tumour is this?
    Germ cell tumour
  16. 16. A 45 year old male is diagnosed with breast cancer. What genetic syndrome is associated and what kind of breast cancer is it likely to be?
    Lobular - Klinefelter's syndrome
  17. 17. A 26 year old Japanese woman presents for 20 week scan. She has had extreme morning sickness. No heartbeat is visible. HCG is still positive and rising. Evacuation is performed. What genotype is a complete mole and what is the chance of choriocarcinoma?
    Diploid (all paternal origine). No fetal parts or placental villi. - About 3% (higher than in partial)
  18. 18. A 26 year old Japanese woman presents for 20 week scan. She has had extreme morning sickness. No heartbeat is visible. HCG is still positive and rising. Evacuation is performed. What genotype is a partial mole and what is the chance of choriocarcinoma?
    Mone maternal and two paternal chromosomes (triploid) - low risk of transformation
  19. 19. A 34 year old woman has been diagnosed with fibroids. What hormone drives their growth?
    Oestrogen - so they grow in pregnancy and shrink at menopause
  20. 20. At neonatal check a baby is diagnosed with retractile testicles. What is management?
    Usually settles at puberty and does not need an operation
  21. 21. A 34 year old woman has been diagnosed with fibroids. What is medical management of this?
    GnRH agonists - these induce hypo-oestrogenism
  22. 22. A 56 year old woman presents with endometrial bleeding post-menopause. Biopsy shows endometrial hyperplasia. What is the importance of this?
    This is a preneoplastic lesion for endometrial adenocarcinoma
  23. 23. A 42 year old woman presents with dysmenorrhoea. On exploratory laproscopy, chocolate cysts are visualised. What is the main driver for this disease?
    Endometriosis - oestrogen (so progesterone therapy might help)
  24. 24. A 49 year old woman presents with bloody nipple discharge. There is also a firm breast lump on palpation. What is the most likely diagnosis?
    Mammary duct ectasia
  25. 25. A 43 year old woman is diagnosed with VAIN. What is the most likely risk factor?
    Previous history of cervical carcinoma
  26. 26. A 45 year old woman presents with a breast lump. The lump is excised and is a largeish rubbery white whorled lesion. What is this and what is management?
    Phyllodes tumour - excision
  27. 27. A 27 year old man presents with a small indurated lesion on the penis. It spontaneously heals several days later. What is this and what stage is it at?
    Primary syphillis
  28. 28. A 31 year old woman presents with multiple, moist, warty vulvovaginal lesions. She has a fever and malaise. What is this and what stage is it at?
    Secondary syphillis
  29. 29. A 58 year old woman dies of an unknown cause. Ovarian autopsy shows bilaterally enlarged ovaries. Biopsy shows signet ring cell adenocarcinoma. What is this and where did it come from?
    Krukenberg tumour - GI origin
  30. 30. A 32 year old man presents with a penile ulcer. On closer look, it is opaque plaques with shallow ulcerations on the shaft and scrotum. There are also flat, red glistening plaques on the penis. What is this called and what does it indicate?
    Bowen disease - squamous penile carcinoma in situ
  31. 31. A 36 year old woman presents with pelvic pain. Ultrasound shows a single enlarged Graffian follicle. What is this made of?
    Simple ovarian cyst (unlikely to be the cause of pain) - lined with granulosa, with an outer coat of thecal cells
  32. 32. A 58 year old woman is being investigated for post-menopausal bleeding. Ultrasound of ovaries shows a multilocular cystic ovarian tumour containing gelatinous material. What is this most likely to be and what kind of developed and embryological tissue is it from?
    Mucinous cystadenoma - surface epithelial tumour from coelomic epithelium
  33. 33. A 65 year old woman presents with blood stained nipple discharge. Excision shows papillary structures. What is this?
    Intraductal papilloma
  34. 34. A 48 year old woman presents with a breast lump. Histology shows multinucleated giant cells, and necrosis. What is this?
    Fat necrosis
  35. 35. A 41 year old woman presents with dysmenorrhoea. On endometrial biopsy, therea re small, irregular endometrial lesions. Histologically, there is endometrium in the myometrial layer. What is this?
    Adenomyosis
  36. 36. It is late on a Friday evening and you are about to discharge your 50 year old male for his testicular lump when the pathology report arrives. Raised AFP. What is this?
    Yolk sac tumour
  37. 37. It is late on a Friday evening and you are about to discharge your 50 year old male for his testicular lump when the pathology report arrives. Raised AFP and hCG. What is this?
    Malignant teratoma
  38. 38. It is late on a Friday evening and you are about to discharge your 50 year old male for his testicular lump when the pathology report arrives. Raised hCG. What is this?
    Trophoblastic germ cell tumour
  39. 39. A 68 year old male presents with a testicular tumour. Histology shows a lymphoma. What kind of lymphoma is this likely to be>?
    B cell lymphoma
  40. 40. A 58 year old woman is being investigated for post-menopausal bleeding. Biopsy of the ovarian lesion shows endometrial differentiation. What kind of ovarian tumour is this and what is prognosis?
    Endometrioid (from surface epithelial tumour) - mostly malignant. Some are clear cell carcinoma.
  41. 41. A 91 year old woman presents with a lesion on her vulva. What neoplasia might you suspect and what condition predisposes to it?
    Squamous cell carcinoma - lichen sclerosus
  42. 42. A 29 year old woman of half-asian and half-caucasian origin presents with lung lesions. HCG is positive. What neoplasm might you consider and what is treatment?
    Choriocarcinoma - very sensitive to chemotherapy
  43. 43. A 58 year old woman is being investigated for post-menopausal bleeding. AFP is raised and MRI shows a small ovarian lesion. What primary ovarian tumour ight you consider?
    Yolk sac tumour
  44. 44. A 31 year old woman presents with an intensely irritating vaginal discharge. On examination, there is inflammation of the vulva and vagina. What protozoa is this most likely to be?
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  45. 45. A 46 year old woman is diagnosed with breast cancer. Which 4 places can it spread to?
    lung, bone, liver, brain
  46. 46. A 59 year old woman is diagnosed with a serous cystadenoma. Which embryological tissue is this derived from and what category of ovarian tumours is this?
    Coelomic epithelium - surface epithelial tumour
  47. 47. A 34 year old woman has been diagnosed with fibroids. Which layer of the uterus does this affect?
    Myometrium
  48. 48. A 28 year old woman presents post-partum with cracked nipples. Microbiology is positive. Which organism is most likely to cause this?
    Staph aureus
  49. 49. What is the commonest STD in the UK in women? ?
    Chlamydia
  50. 50. True or false: ostrogen contraceptives increase your risk of candida albicans. ?
    TRUE
  51. 51. How does the oral contraceptive pill affect your chances of a surface epithelial stromal ovarian tumour? ?
    Decreases chances. - as many ovulations increases risk
  52. 52. There are 4 types of epithelial tumours. What are they? ?
    Serous tumours (tubal), endometrial and clear cell, mucinous, Brenner tumours
  53. 53. A 24 year old female in her 2nd trimester has been in contact with someone with toxoplasma and wants to know if it might affect her pregnancy. ?
    No - mainly in first trimester
  54. 54. A 24 year old female in her 2nd trimester has been in contact with someone with CMV and wants to know if it might affect her pregnancy. ?
    No - mainly in first trimester
  55. 55. A 24 year old female in her 2nd trimester has been in contact with someone with herpes and wants to know if it might affect her pregnancy. ?
    No - mainly in first trimester
  56. 56. At what age of gestation do the testes descend? ?
    7 months gestation.

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