RICA Test Prep

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robertprice8000
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RICA Test Prep
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2014-05-10 18:36:53
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Info pulled from Teacher Test Prep class.
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  1. Long term and short term reading instruction must be based on...
    the analysis of data from on-going assessments.
  2. Lesson plans need to include...
    daily objectives that incorporate state standards and utilize state adopted curriculum for instruction and intervention.
  3. Assessments will be used to determine the master level of students in order to provide...
    systematic reading instruction that builds on their foundational skills to develop complex critical thinking skills.
  4. What are the six foundational skills in order?
    • - Concepts of Print
    • - Phonemic Awareness
    • - Alphabetic Principle
    • - Phonics
    • - Fluency
    • - Reading Comprehension
  5. What are the three types of differentiated instruction?
    • - Whole group
    • - Small, flexible group
    • - Individualized instruction
  6. Intervention should be...
    data-driven and targeted to specific skills.
  7. What are the three types of interventions?
    • - Benchmark
    • - Strategic
    • - Intensive
  8. Describe benchmark indicator.
    Student achievement is at or above grade level.
  9. Describe strategic intervention.
    Student achievement is slightly at risk for master of grade level material.
  10. Describe intensive intervention.
    Student achievement is highly at risk for mastery of grade level material.
  11. According to the California (RLA) Framework components of effective direct instruction are?
    • - Orientation
    • - Presentation
    • - Guided Practice
    • - Independent Practice
    • - Extended Activity
  12. What are ways to engage and motivate students during reading?
    • - Target skills: appropriate for instructional reading levels (MOST IMPORTANT)
    • - Room environment: safe and inviting
    • - Reading materials: instruction highlights students' interests
    • - Daily  read-alouds by teacher, students, speaker
    • - Parental involvement in readin suppport
  13. Name and describe the three reading levels.
    • - Frustration
    • - Instructional
    • - Independent
  14. Describe frustration level.
    Frustration is reached when the text is read with 90-94%accuracy and a child demonstrates limited or unsatisfactory comprehension or when a child can read with greater accuracy but demonstrates no comprehension. Anything read below 90% accuracy at this level is deemed to be a frustration level text even if the child has excellent or satisfactory comprehension.
  15. Describe instructional level reading.
    A child’s instructional reading level is determined by what a child can either read with 95% or better accuracy with  limited comprehension or what he reads with between 90-94% accuracy with excellent or satisfactory comprehension.
  16. Describe independent reading level.
    A child’s independent reading level refers to what a child is able to decode, analyze, and evaluate without the support of the teacher. 

    In order for a text to be deemed “independent” for a child, a child must be able to read it with 95% or greater accuracy and satisfactory comprehension. For a child reading at levels L-Z, in order for a text to be considered at the “independent” level, it needs to be read with 98% accuracy or better with satisfactory comprehension.
  17. Name five school-based supports for student reading development.
    • - Reading Coach
    • - Grade Level Teams
    • - Professional Development
    • - Student Study Team
    • - Administration
  18. Describe Entry-Level Assessments.
    A measurement of the knowledge the student hold before teaching a concept in order to support the teacher with appropriate planning.
  19. Describe On-going assessments.
    A measurement of knowledge the student has achieved for a specific concept or skill area.
  20. Describe summative assessment.
    A measurement of knowledge that the student has achieved concepts for a unit, semester, or end of year.
  21. Describe what an IEP is.
    A plan that is developed by educators and parents to help their child succeed in school by determining yearly goals and identify the special support that should be implemented to achieve mastery.
  22. Describe what a 504 Plan is.
    A plan that explains the modification and accommodations that are necessary for students to perform at the same level of their peers.
  23. Name three standardized assessments.
    • - District Periodic Assessments
    • - Standardized Testing and Reporting Program (STAR)
    • - California English Language Development Test (CELDT)
  24. How does assessment aid in instruction?
    • - determines performance levels
    • - supports instructional planning
    • - supports intervention planning
  25. Who should assessment results be communicated to?
    • - students
    • - parents
    • - school personnel
    • - district personnel
  26. What is phonemic awareness?
    The ability to identify, hear, and work with the smallest units of sound known as phonemes. 

    It is NOT the same as phonological awareness, instead, it is a sub-category of phonological awareness. 

    For example, phonemic awareness is narrow, and deals only with phonemes and manipulating the individual sounds of words - such as /c/, /a/, and /t/ are the individual sounds that make up to form the word "cat".
  27. What is phonological awareness?
    Includes the phonemic awareness ability, and it also includes the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate larger units of sound such as rimes and onsets.
  28. List ways that students demonstrate that they have phonemic awareness.
    • - Oral blending and segmentation
    • - Counting phonemes
    • - Comparing word lengths
    • - Sound manipulation: adding and deleting
    • - Rhyming and songs
    • - Onset-rime
  29. What is the relationship between phonemic awareness and phonics?
    The ability to identify the sounds in words leads the ability to identify written words.

    identify words orally ---> identify written words
  30. What is the connection between phonemic awareness and sounds?
    Identifying individual sounds leads to blending these sounds in a word.
  31. What are three ways to provide universal access for phonological awareness?
    • - Focus on mastery of key skills to support reading foundation, such as segmenting and oral blending.
    • - Pre-teach and re-teach skills, during differentiated instruction.
    • - Provide additional practice using hands-on methods for phoneme counting and segmenting.
  32. Name three ways to provide universal access for phonological awareness for students with special needs.
    • - Focus on mastery of key skills to support reading foundation, such as segmenting and oral blending.
    • - Pre-teach and re-teach skills, during differentiated instruction.
    • - Provide additional practice using various methods such as visuals, tactile, auditory, and kinesthetic.
  33. Name three ways to provide universal access to phonological awareness for students who are English Language Learners.
    • - Pre-teach phonemes that are not in primary language.
    • - Use correct sequence of phoneme instruction in order to prevent confusion of sounds.
    • - Differentiate instruction for letters that are similar in sound.
  34. Describe three ways to provide universal access of phonological awareness for advanced learners.
    • - Increase the pace of phonemic awareness.
    • - Blend phonemic awareness and phonics lessons.
    • - Incorporate the reading of simple texts and phonetic writing.
  35. What is print awareness?
    Students understand that oral language can be written, then read.
  36. Name three concepts about print.
    • - recognizing the directionality of print
    • - tracking print in connected text
    • - book-handling skills
  37. Describe letter identification.
    Students are able to identify capital and lowercase letters in isolation and within the context of reading material.
  38. Describe letter formation.
    Students are able to form written capital and lowercase letters using various formats (i.e. paper/pencil, clay, sand)
  39. Name types of instruction to teach letter recognition.
    • - sing alphabet song
    • - introduce letters in isolation
    • - identify letters within context
    • - hands-on activities with letter identification, matching upper and lowercase, sequencing
  40. Name four pairs of letters that are similar either visually or when heard.
    • - p and q
    • - d and b
    • - w and m
    • - m and n
  41. Name four ways to practice writing letters and words.
    • - practice writing capital and lowercase letters
    • - use kinesthetic methods by making air letters
    • - use tactile methods bu writing letters in sand,, using clay, yarn.
    • - writing center
  42. What is a grapheme?
    A written representation of a sound.
  43. What is a phoneme?
    A sound for a written letter.
  44. Name three way student's can demonstrate phonemic awareness.
    • - letter-sound correspondence
    • - adding and deleting sounds
    • - substituting sounds
  45. What is the Alphabetic Principle?
    The understanding that words are made up of letters and letters represent sounds.
  46. Beginning decoding includes:
    • Understanding simple spelling patterns
    • - two and three letter words
    • - blending letter sounds
  47. List some instructional approaches to teach decoding.
    • - introduce sound and spelling
    • - conduct sound-by-sound decoding for CV or CVC words
    • - blend sounds to determine the word
  48. List some decoding activities.
  49. Pre-phonetic writing is when students are able to write...
    initial and final sounds of a word
  50. Semi-phonetic writing means students are able to...
    write the final and medial sounds in a word.
  51. Phonetic writing is when...
    students understand spelling patterns.
  52. Universal access for struggling students with regard to concepts about print include:
    • - Pre-teach concepts and display labels of book parts, letters, words, sentences during instruction.
    • - Teach isolated concepts. Do no blend skills.
    • - Follow-up with small group instruction on concepts the same day, using hands-on approach.
  53. Universal access for students with special needs relating to concepts about print include:
    • - Pre-teach concepts and display labels of book parts, letters, words, sentences during instruction.
    • - Teach isolated concepts. Do no blend skills.
    • - Provide additional practice using larger print, repeat concepts, kinesthetic and tactile methods.
  54. Universal access for students who are English Language Learners related to concepts about print include:
    • - Pre-teach concepts and display labels of book parts, letters, words, sentences during instruction.
    • - Teach isolated concepts. Do no blend skills.
    • - Transfer knowledge from primary language to English, using a T-chart to display.
  55. Universal access for students who are advanced learners related to concepts about print include:
    • - Increase the pace of instruction
    • - Expand activities to reading the letters, words, and sentences.
    • - Begin phonics and phonetic spelling to describe environmental and book print.
  56. Universal access for struggling students related to letter recognition and alphabetic principle include:
    • - Teach a small set of letters and sounds until mastery occurs.
    • - Use a variety of materials: letter tiles, letter cards, songs, magnetic letters, interactive activities.
    • - Pre-teach and re-teach in small groups to isolate unknown skills.
    • - Repetitive practice and instruction
  57. Universal access for students with special needs related to concepts about letter recognition and alphabetic principle include:
    • - Teach a small set of letters and sounds until mastery occurs.
    • - Use a variety of materials: letter tiles, letter cards, songs, magnetic letters, interactive activities.
    • - Pre-teach and re-teach in small groups to isolate unknown skills.
    • - Repetitive practice and instruction using various modalities.
  58. Universal access for English Language Learners related to concepts about letter recognition and alphabetic principle include:
    • - Teach a small set of letters and sounds until mastery occurs.
    • - Use a variety of materials: letter tiles, letter cards, songs, magnetic letters, interactive activities.
    • - Pre-teach and re-teach in small groups to isolate unknown skills.
    • - Repetitive practice and instruction
  59. Universal access for Advanced Learners related to concepts about letter recognition and alphabetic principle include:
    • - assess for mastery of concepts
    • - begin stages of phonics instruction
    • - small group instruction for reading. Decodable books
    • - Begin writing activities
  60. Name three assessments for concepts about print.
    • - observation notes
    • - monitoring checklist
    • - concepts of print survey
  61. Name three assessments for letter recognition.
    • - letter names-uppercase
    • - letter names-lowercase
    • - letter identification in texts
    • - letter sequencing
    • - letter matching
  62. Name three assessments for alphabetic principle.
    • - identify individual sounds
    • - identify consonant and vowel sounds
    • - nonsense word identification
    • - word recognition
    • - identify manipulation of initial, medial and final sounds
  63. Define automaticity.
    When a student reads the words without conscious attention to the word structure in an engaging, meaningful way. This frees cognitive resources that enable them to process the text for meaning. Automaticity is achieved through corrected and sustained practice.
  64. What is the sequence of phonics and sight-word instruction?
    • 1. Sound-by-sound decoding
    • 2. Whole word decoding
    • 3. Syllable decoding
    • 4. Whole word reading
  65. Describe two or three examples of phonics instruction.
    • - introduce a few short vowel sounds (students apply sounds to read CVC words)
    • - introduce letters sounds that relate to letter names (i.e. t, begins with /t/ sound)
    • - introduce letter sounds that do not relate to letter names (i.e. h with /h/)
    • - separate letter sounds that look or sound similar
    • - introduce sound spellings that are frequently found in texts so students have many opportunities to practice during reading
  66. Describe two or three examples of sight word instruction.
    • - introduce words that frequently come up in texts that students should be able to read.
    • - introduce words in isolation
    • - practice identifying and reading words within the context of reading simple texts
    • - multiple exposures to memorize the word
  67. What are the four types of consonant sounds?
    • - hard and soft sounds (g and c)
    • - continuous and abrupt sounds (m,n and d,t)
  68. Define and provide examples of a consonant digraph.
    two- or three-letter consonants, either beginning or ending, which make only one sound. These include th, wh, -ng, -nk, sh, ch, -tch, and qu.
  69. Define and provide an example of a consonant blend.
    blends are a collection of two or three different consonant sounds that are each heard when the word is pronounced as in drink.
  70. Define and provide an example of a vowel digraph.
    Two adjacent vowel letters that represent a single speech sound constitute a vowel digraph.In the word foot, oo is a vowel digraph.(au, aw)
  71. Define and provide and example of dipthongs.
    a sound formed by the combination of two vowels in a single syllable, in which the sound begins as one vowel and moves toward another (as in coin and loud).
  72. Describe and provide examples for r-controlled and l-controlled vowels.
    a vowel followed by "r"  or "l" no longer has its short sound.  Notice that the sound of  a  in “car” is not the sound of   a  in “cat.”
  73. List five common morphological units.
    • - ed
    • - s
    • - ing
    • - er
    • - est
  74. List the five common word patterns.
    • - CVC
    • - CVCC
    • - CCVC
    • - CVVC
    • - CVCe
  75. What are the two common syllable patterns?
    • - closed syllable: hap-pen
    • - open syllable: re-view
  76. Define phonetically irregular words.
    • Words that cannot be decoded based on the orthographic rules and spelling patterns. 
    • Examples: said, were, the, friend
  77. Define sight words.
    Words that frequently appear in texts that are read by students.
  78. Define and describe the five stages of spelling development.
    • - Pre-communicative spelling: scribbles
    • - Semi-phonetic spelling: Use of initial and final sounds
    • - Phonetic spelling: write all sounds heard in a word
    • - Transitional spelling: writes words according to spelling patterns, may have a few misspellings
    • - Conventional spelling: spells words according to spelling patterns and orthographic rules
  79. List the four ways that phonics supports reading and spelling development.
    • - sound/symbol correspondence
    • - common affixes
    • - letter combinations
    • - common orthographic patterns
  80. What spelling activities/instruction also reinforce phonics and vocabulary development?
    • - word sorts
    • - word walls
    • - word banks
  81. What writing activities reinforce phonics and vocabulary development?
    • - proofreading
    • - sentence lifting
  82. Give at least three examples of instruction for a beginning stage reader.
    • - blending VC and CVC words
    • - teaching one-syllable words
    • - teaching irregular sight words
    • - reading decodable texts to practice phonics and sight word instruction in context
    • - transfer phonics to spelling
  83. Give at least three examples of instruction for a more advanced stage reader.
    • - teaching words with longer letter combinations
    • - teaching CWCe words
    • - teach uncommon letter combinations (kn-, ph)
    • - use decodable text to practice phonics and sigh word instruction in context
    • - teach words with inflectional endings (-ed, -ing)
    • - teach words with phonics and more complex orthographic patterns
  84. List three or more strategies for mastery of high frequency words.
    • - multiple exposures
    • - hand-on activities
    • - identify words in grade level texts
    • - making words
    • - flashcard activities
    • - writing simple sentences
  85. List strategies to provide universal access with phonics and sight word instruction for
    struggling students
    • - provide differentiated instruction by focusing on key phonics skills that are not mastered
    • - use a variety of materials: letter tiles, letter cards, and interactive activities to support phonics instruction
    • - pre-teach and re-teach in small groups to isolate unknown skills
    • - repetitive practice and multiple exposures for phonics and sight words
    • - highlight high frequency words for sight word instruction
  86. List strategies to provide universal access with phonics and sight word instruction for
    students with special needs
    • - provide differentiated instruction by focusing on key phonics skills that are not mastered
    • - use a variety of materials to support phonics instruction that uses auditory, visual, kinesthetic and tactile techniques
    • - pre-teach and re-teach in small groups to isolate unknown skills
    • - repetitive practice and multiple exposures for phonics and sight words
  87. List strategies to provide universal access with phonics and sight word instruction for
    English Language Learners
    • - Transfer concepts in primary language to the English language
    • - Explicitly pre-teach sounds that are not in primary language and are difficult to transfer to English language
    • - Explicitly teach the meaning of sight words
    • - Provide differentiated instruction on the areas needed
  88. List strategies to provide universal access with phonics and sight word instruction for
    advanced learners
    • - Increase the pace of phonics instruction
    • - Increase the level of reading, incorporating multisyllabic words
    • - promote transitional and conventional spelling in independent writing
  89. List at least three assessments for phonics and sight words.
    • - sound/spelling assessment (phonics)
    • - sight word assessment
    • - dictation of words with spelling patterns
    • - oral fluency assessment
    • - observation notes
    • - writing samples
  90. How do phonics, sight word knowledge, syllabic and structural analysis, and orthography work together to result in automatic word recognition?
    phonics --> sight words --> syllable analysis --> structural analysis --> orthography --> phonics
  91. Define structural analysis.
    Decoding multisyllabic words formed by adding affixes to a base word.
  92. List and define the six types of syllables.
    • - Closed: a syllable in which a single vowel is followed by a consonant (cat-nip)
    • - Open: a syllable ending with a single vowel (re-spect)
    • - R-controlled: a syllable in which a vowel is followed by the letter "r" (tar-get)
    • -Vowel Team/Vowel Digraph: a syllable containing two or more letters that make one vowel sound (clou-dy)
    • - Vowel-silent e: a syllable with a long vowel-consonant silent e pattern (be-have)
    • - Consonant -le: a final syllable containing a consonant plus -le (tab-le)
  93. List at least three phonograms.
    • these are complex chunks of letters
    • - tch
    • - dge
    • - igh
    • - eigh
  94. List four common orthographic rules.
    • - change y to i
    • - drop silent e
    • - double final consonant
    • - plurals: -s,  -es
  95. List at least two word analysis extension activities.
    • - identify and categorize word patterns, using graphic organizers
    • - word sorts
    • - proofreading for learned spelling patterns
    • - sentence building using sound spelling patterns
  96. Strategies for universal access when teaching structural, syllabic and orthographic analysis to
    struggling students
    • - differentiated instruction building on skills mastered
    • - pre-teaching and re-teaching skills
    • - use familiar examples that students can relate to in order to introduce new concepts
    • - provide additional practice
  97. Strategies for universal access when teaching structural, syllabic and orthographic analysis for students with
    special needs
    • - differentiated instruction building on skills mastered, using various modalities
    • - use hands-on activities to support learning
    • - use visuals and familiar examples to explain new concepts
    • - provide additional oral and written practice
  98. Strategies for universal access when teaching structural, syllabic and orthographic analysis for
    English Language Learners
    • - explicitly pre-teach rules for spelling and grammar for English
    • - transfer to known information in primary language to English
    • - provide differentiated instruction based on language levels
    • - use visual examples to support rules
  99. Strategies for universal access when teaching structural, syllabic and orthographic analysis for
    advanced learners
    • - increase the pacing of instruction
    • - use higher level information and texts for concepts
    • - extended activities
  100. List assessments for Structural Analysis
    • - graphic organizers with affixes
    • - multiple choice/Sound Spelling Assessment
    • - writing samples
    • - observation notes
    • - word sorts
  101. List assessments for Syllabic Analysis.
    • - multiple choice assessments
    • - observation notes
    • - classifying/syllable sorts
    • - counting syllables
    • - identifying syllables
  102. List assessments for Orthographic Analysis.
    • - sentence editing
    • - spelling assessment
    • - multiple choice assessment
    • - writing samples
    • - observation notes
  103. In order, list the progression from letter naming to word reading in connected text.
    • - letter naming
    • - phonemic awareness
    • - alphabetic principle
    • - sight words
    • - phonics
    • - fluency
    • - comprehension
  104. What is the role of fluency?
    It is the bridge from word analysis to reading comprehension.
  105. What is the automaticity theory?
    Based on the principle that tasks become easier, requiring less attention, through practice. Decoding becomes automatic through explicit instruction and practice.
  106. List and define the three indicators of fluency.
    • - Accuracy: students are able to pronounce the words correctly as they read
    • - Pacing: students are reading text at the correct speed
    • - Prosody: students are reading with expression, phrasing, pitch and volume according to the context and punctuation
  107. List at least three factors that disrupt fluency.
    • - weak word analysis
    • - stopping to decode unfamiliar words
    • - lack of content vocabulary
    • - lack of background knowledge
    • - lack of complex syntactic structures
  108. What is the framework for effective instructional delivery?
    • Orientation – explain to students what they are expected to learn

    • Presentation – Define and explain concept. Model how to complete the task. What information do they need to be successful and how are you going to model

    • Guided Practice – Provide opportunities for student to practice while teacher monitors and gives feedback. • showing students what they are supposed to do. Watching students to see if they are able to do on their own.

    • Independent Practice: Students are 90% accurate and practice more examples. (Students do not require feedback and guidance in contrast to Guided Practice)

    • Extended Activities: Group work, projects, partner work.
  109. Example of a fluency lesson. Notice that the lesson is formatted using the framework for effective instruction.

    - Orientation
    - Presentation
    - Guided Practice
    - Independent Practice
    - Extended Activities
    Teacher will discuss the purpose of fluency and explain accuracy, pacing and expression.

    Teacher will review the difficult words (on index cards)

    • Teacher will:
    • - Read the words to the students
    • - Echo read words (I read, you read)
    • - Chorally read words (read with students)
    • - Have students read words independently

    • Teacher will fluently read the passage to the students then ask for feedback.
    • Teacher will chorally read the selection with the students
    • Students will read the passage independently (with teacher support)
  110. When and how should fluency be introduced?
    Fluency should be introduced once students are able to recognize high frequency words and have decoding skills.
  111. How is fluency instruction introduced?
    • - direct explanation of accuracy, pacing and prosody
    • - teacher modeling fluent reading
    • - teacher/student analysis of fluent reading
    • - student fluency practice
  112. Name some fluency strategies.
    • Guidance
    • - pre-teach vocabulary
    • - model fluent reading
    • - support student's reading
    • Practice
    • - student reads texts with support
    • - times readings
    • -repeated readings
    • - reader's theater
    • Feedback
    • - discuss progress for fluency
  113. List at least four strategies for improving accuracy.
    • - pre-teach vocabulary
    • - echo reading
    • - choral reading
    • - repeated readings
    • - phonemic awareness
    • - sight word instruction
    • - reading passages aligned with phonics instruction
    • - reader's theater
  114. List at least four strategies for improving rate.
    • - partner reading
    • - choral reading
    • - repeated reading
    • - timed reading
    • - whisper reading
    • - reader's theater
  115. List at least three strategies for improving prosody.
    • - instruction of punctuation in texts
    • - reader's theater
    • - choral reading
    • - read alouds by teacher
  116. Universal access for fluency development for
    struggling students
    • - use texts at independent level for reading instruction. Use repeated reading
    • - review phonics instruction (targeted)
    • - review sight word instruction (targeted)
    • - paired reading: choral, whisper, and echo with teacher support
  117. Universal access for fluency development for
    student with special needs
    • - use texts that are accessible to students for reading instruction (large print, books on tape)
    • - review phonics instruction (targeted)
    • - review sight word instruction (targeted)
    • - paired reading: choral and echo with teacher support
  118. Universal access for fluency development for
    English Language Learners
    • - pre-teach vocabulary, using visuals
    • - model prosody, such as phrasing, syntax, and punctuation
    • - review phonics instruction (targeted)
    • - review sight word instruction (targeted)
    • - paired reading: choral, whisper, and echo with teacher support
  119. Universal access for fluency development for
    Advanced Learners
    • - use more advanced texts for fluency instruction
    • - silent reading
    • - literature based activities
  120. What are ways to asses for fluency?
    • - oral fluency assessment
    • - running records
    • - miscue analysis
    • - observation notes
    • - word recognition lists
    • - time fluency practice
  121. How does decoding and the ability to create meaning of texts improve fluency?
    • - helps with reading homophones accurately
    • - helps with prosody and gauge expression and pitch
    • - helps with comprehension of texts
  122. What is the role of vocabulary, academic language and background knowledge in building comprehension?
    (3 answers)
    • - children need to understand strategies to independently figure out meanings while reading
    • - children need to be aware of important theme-related words to understand texts.
    • - increase the amount of time children read independently with various types of books to expand vocabulary.
  123. What is the role of vocabulary, academic language and background knowledge with regard to complex grammar structures?
    (4 answers)
    • - language of texts
    • - word complexity
    • - complex sentence structures
    • - complex syntax
  124. List at least three ways that children develop early vocabulary (Pre-K thru 2nd).
    • - Oral language experience at home and school
    • - listening to books read to them
    • - categorize and classify target vocabulary
    • - compound words
    • - explicit instruction for listening vocabulary
  125. How can effective vocabulary instruction and intervention reduce negative affects in reading development?
    • - students should be assessed
    • - explicitly taught vocabulary meanings and strategies
    • - provided with vocabulary practice and meaningful exposures
  126. Describe each of the three vocabulary tiers.
    Tier One - basic words that are obtained by general conversation (happy, talk, make).

    Tier Two - these are rich knowledge words that improve verbal skills obtained by exposure ot a wide variety of experiences (elaborate, distinguish)

    Tier Three - words that are not frequently used because they are usually related to a specific content area (isotope, pre-historic).
  127. Why are Tier Two words targeted for instruction?
    Because they add to the student's language ability in daily and academic conversations.
  128. How do you promote word consciousness?
    • - vocabulary organizers
    • - poetry as word play
    • - illustration of figurative language
    • - investigation of Latin and Greek roots
    • - word games
    • - histories and word origins
    • - categorize and slassify words
  129. How do you reinforce vocabulary through oral language, reading and writing?
    • - model use of vocabulary during discussions
    • - identify word use in texts
    • - transfer new vocabulary within writing activities
  130. How do students learn vocabulary from context?
    • - identify the clue words within the sentence that would help determine the meaning for the target word
    • - from these clues, what can you determine is the meaning of the target word
  131. What are the four components of a comprehensive vocabulary program?
    • - direct teaching of target words
    • - word learning strategies such as:
    • contextual
    • word parts
    • apposition
    • - development of word consciousness, that is, multiple exposures and practice with vocabulary
    • - promoting wide reading and meaningful exposure
  132. Name four ways to provide student friendly definitions for complex words.
    • - provide a familiar example for the target word, simpler than how it is used in the text
    • - provide visual representations
    • - act out the vocabulary word
    • - engage actively with the word
    • - develop graphic organizers for vocabulary
  133. Name at least four strategies for teaching academic vocabulary.
    • Guided discussions of academic content and concepts
    • - introduction of them related vocabulary
    • - after-reading discussion and incorporating vocabulary and academic language
    • - concept mapping
    • - semantic mapping
    • - morphological mapping

    • Identifying synonyms and antonyms
    • - explicit instruction of target word, use synonyms and antonyms for explanations
    • - vocabulary activities: synonym and antonym matching
    • - word wall: use synonyms of words in independent writing
  134. What is a semantic map?
    a diagram that helps students understand the similarities and differences for vocabulary. It helps students to access and associate prior knowledge to key concepts.
  135. What is a morphological map?
    A web that helps students to associate words with the same morphemes (affixes, roots, word families).
  136. Name at least four activities to build vocabulary.
    • - picture sorts
    • - category sorts
    • - semantic analysis
    • - word maps
    • - word banks: personal dictionaries that students develop as they encounter new vocabulary
  137. What is a metaphor?
    • A comparison of two things that are not the same.
    • EX: My friend is a walking computer.
  138. What is an analogy?
    • Similarities among two things.
    • EX: a light bulb is to a lamp as a flame is to a candle
  139. What is word consciousness?
    An awareness of vocabulary used outside of instruction.
  140. Name three ways students can build their word consciousness?
    • - word games
    • - investigations of etymology and morphology
    • - use of figurative language and speech
  141. List three or more listening comprehension activities.
    • - hinks pinks
    • - riddles
    • - tongue twisters
    • - puns
    • - idioms
    • - wide reading, because it provides multiple exposures to words
  142. List the four ways that students can demonstrate knowledge of syntax and grammar.
    • - sentence structure
    • - usage
    • - punctuation
    • - capitalization
  143. List vocabulary strategies to ensure universal access for
    struggling students
    • - pre-teach vocabulary, using visual representations
    • - re-teach vocabulary by acting-out meanings and contexts
    • - explain meanings using a familiar example and graphic organizers
    • - provide multiple exposures
  144. List vocabulary strategies to ensure universal access for
    students with special needs
    • - pre-teach vocabulary, using visual representations
    • - re-teach vocabulary by acting-out meanings and contexts
    • - explain meanings using a familiar example and graphic organizers and APPROPRIATE MODALITIES
    • - provide multiple exposures
  145. List vocabulary strategies to ensure universal access for
    English Language Learners
    • - transfer knowledge of primary language using cognates, translation of acadmic language, and explicit grammar skills
    • - use visual aids such as illustrations, charts, word organizers
    • - develop morphology and cognate awareness
  146. List vocabulary strategies to ensure universal access for
    advanced learners
    • - use advanced reading material to build on vocabulary development
    • - extend activities using poetry, word origins, histories, and roots to build on word consciousness
    • - incorporate independent dictionary/thesaurus skills to develop personal dictionaries for Tier Two vocabulary
  147. List four or more assessments for vocabulary.
    • - synonyms and antonyms
    • - word structure
    • - context clues
    • - figurative language
    • - multiple meanings
    • - analogies
  148. List Bloom's Taxonomy.
    • knowledge (recall)
    • comprehension (explain)
    • application (use)
    • analysis (take apart)
    • synthesis (make it new)
    • evaluation (judge it)
  149. List the four Question and Answer Responses (QAR).
    • - Right there (locate info in text)
    • - Think & Search (locate info in various places in the text)
    • - Author & Me
    • - On My Own
  150. List the four types of comprehension.
    • - literal
    • - inferential
    • - evaluative
    • - listening
  151. What is literal comprehension?
    Ability to identify and recall information explicitly stated in texts (main ideas, details, sequence, story elements).
  152. What is inferential comprehension?
    The ability to draw conclusions based on collecting information from texts and applying it to personal knowledge (predictions, inferring information not explicitly stated).
  153. What is evaluative comprehension?
    The ability to analyze texts for facts and opinions, bias, evidence to support reasoning, analyzing themes (compare and contrast, draw conclusions based on evidence, confirm predictions).
  154. What is listening comprehension?
    The application of all types of comprehension in relation to read alouds and academic discussions on topics and content areas. Focus is on comprehension strategies (making and confirming predictions, make connections, clarify, summarize).
  155. List the four ways that of text can be organized.
    • - chronological order
    • - story grammar/story elements
    • - compare and contrast
    • - main ideas and details
  156. List three elements of syntax can be used to determine text structure.
    • - clue words
    • - linguistic patterns
    • - background knowledge of theme
  157. List two scaffolds that can be used to aid in comprehension.
    • - graphic organizers
    • - Cloze sentences for linguistic patterns
  158. List three instructional conversations to frame text-based discussions.
    • - reflecting on the selection
    • - sharing ideas about concepts
    • - exploration of themes
  159. List three or more lines of questions to frame text-based discussions.
    • - question the opinion of the author
    • - question the information of the text
    • - question the type of text
    • - question the purpose or point of view
  160. What is another type of text-based discussion that does not involve the whole class?
    Think-Pair-Share
  161. List some activities that can facilitate comprehension during and after reading.
    • - story maps
    • - story frames
    • - story grammars
    • - independent summaries
  162. What is a very useful tool to facilitate understanding of expository text?
    Outlining by using study guides
  163. How does responding to the text as an activity support comprehension?
    Facilitates understanding by making connections, analysis, and forming opinions with support from the text.
  164. How can the teacher support comprehension through independent reading?
    (5 answers)
    • - promote books through read alouds
    • - determine reading level
    • - interest inventory
    • - anecdotal notes on reading behaviors
    • - monitoring activities
  165. List up to five monitoring activities to support comprehension during independent reading.
    • - reading journals
    • - book reports
    • - teacher/student conferences
    • - literature circles
    • - literacy projects
  166. List four or more comprehension strategies/skills to employ PRIOR to reading.
    • - set purpose for reading: graphic organizers, questions, prompts
    • - preview texts: picture walks, title, captions, headings
    • - KWL Chart (primarily for expository text) What they know, What they would like to know and What they have Learned
    • - activate prior knowledge
    • - provide background knowledge
    • - preview target vocabulary
    • - make predictions
    • - genre study
  167. List four or more comprehension strategies/skills to employ DURING to reading.
    • - confirming predictions
    • - making connections (text to text, text to self, text to world)
    • - visualize using all five senses
    • - summarize/retell
    • - clarify (using pictures, words, phrases)
    • - questioning
    • - re-reading
    • - note-taking
    • - teacher modeling and think-alouds
  168. List four or more comprehension strategies/skills to employ AFTER to reading.
    • - placing events in chronological order
    • - discuss main ideas and details
    • - discuss cause and effect
    • - compare and contrast
    • - make inferences
    • - draw conclusions
    • - classify and categorize
    • - discuss facts and opinions
    • - complete graphic organizer
    • - employ guided and independent practice for identifying text strutctures
  169. List ways to promote listening comprehension.
    (6 answers)
    • - modeling comprehension strategies
    • - modeling comprehension skills
    • - whole group completion of graphic organizer
    • - content area material 
    • - read alouds
    • - transfer information of analysis of text to independent writing
  170. List ways to provide universal access in reading comprehension for
    struggling students
    • - differentiated instruction with modifications of reading levels and instruction of limited strategies
    • - provide explicit visuals and charted explanations of strategies and skills being addressed. Conduct instruction through oral presentation.
    • - review word analysis and fluency instruction.
  171. List ways to provide universal access in reading comprehension for
    students with special needs
    • - differentiated instruction with modifications of reading levels and instruction of limited strategies
    • - provide explicit visuals and charted explanations of strategies and skills being addressed. Conduct instruction through oral presentation.
    • - use various modalities to support understanding of comprehension strategies.
  172. List ways to provide universal access in reading comprehension for
    English Language Learners
    • - provide visuals and charted explanations of strategies and skills being addressed. Conduct instruction through oral presentations.
    • - review word analysis
    • - review fluency instruction
    • - pre-teach vocabulary used during instruction
  173. List ways to provide universal access in reading comprehension for
    advanced learners
    • - enhance the complexity of instruction
    • - require more written and independent assignments
    • - assign projects that require knowledge of comprehension strategies and skills (analysis of texts).
  174. List four or more assessments used determine student's reading comprehension.
    • - observation notes from oral discussions
    • - analysis of completed graphic organizers
    • - multiple choice style comprehension assessments
    • - open-ended comprehension assessments
    • - analysis of writing, using organizational features
    • - response to reading
    • - learning log
  175. List three organizational structures found in poetry.
    • - ballad
    • - lyric
    • - tragedy
    • - comedy
    • - satire
    • - sonnet
    • - epic
    • - couplet
  176. Example of instruction teaching students the elements of story grammar.
    • - mini lesson explaining the elements
    • - teacher models identifying elements, using a graphic organizer
    • - guided instruction: students identify elements while teacher monitors and provides feedback
    • - independent practice: students identify elements after reading literature
  177. List two or more narrative analysis that can be used for instruction.
    • - focus on literary elements
    • - consider use of figurative language
    • - consider perspective of time and place
    • - recognize the features of literary genres
  178. List ways to study and analyze literature with support from the text.
    (5 answers)
    • - characterization
    • - writing style
    • - point of view
    • - themes, trends and political views
    • - setting
  179. List oral language activities to provide instruction on narrative and literary texts.
    (9 answers)
    • - (QAR) Question & Answer Relationship discussions
    • - Retellings
    • - Oral think alouds
    • - book talk
    • - author studies
    • - language experience approach
    • - literature circles
    • - SQP3R - Survey, Question, Predict, Read, Respond, Review, Summarize
    • - Reciprocal teaching
  180. List four or more writing activities to provide instruction on narrative and literary texts.
    (6 answers)
    • - story crafting (primary)
    • - captions for illustrations (primary)
    • - journal writing
    • - narrative writing process
    • - book reports
    • - figurative language booklets
  181. List ways to ensure universal access when teaching comprehension of narrative and literary texts to
    struggling students
    • - use texts that are an independent level for instruction of grade appropriate concepts
    • - focus on elements of story grammar and developing story maps
    • - conduct activities using read alouds and oral presentation
  182. List ways to ensure universal access when teaching comprehension of narrative and literary texts to
    students with special needs
    • - use texts that are an independent level for instruction of grade appropriate concepts (audio, large print)
    • - focus on elements of story grammar and developing story maps using appropriate modalities
    • - conduct activities using read alouds and oral presentation
  183. List ways to ensure universal access when teaching comprehension of narrative and literary texts to
    English Language Learners
    • - pre-teach vocabulary tht relate to themes in the text
    • - build knowledge of cultural and background information
    • - use graphic organizers to develop story elements 
    • - use read alouds to model concepts
  184. List ways to ensure universal access when teaching comprehension of narrative and literary texts to
    advanced learners
    • - use advanced and various genres of texts
    • - promote independent literature activities
    • - promote literary criticism and understanding and how to use information from texts to support ideas and responses
  185. List five types of expository/informational text.
    • - textbooks
    • - news articles
    • - research report
    • - websites
    • - essay
    • - consumer manual
    • - biography/autobiography
    • - speech
  186. List four or more text structures commonly found in expository text.
    (7 answers)
    • - chronological order
    • - main idea and details
    • - cause and effect
    • - compare and contrast
    • - problem and solution
    • - descriptions
    • - steps in a process
  187. List four features used to organize text in an informational text.
    • - table of contents
    • - index
    • - glossary
    • - bibliography
  188. List four or more typographic features found in informational text.
    • - italics
    • - underlining
    • - capitalizing
    • - color coding
    • - boldfacing
  189. List four or more graphic features commonly found in informational text.
    • - charts
    • - maps
    • - graphs
    • - diagrams
    • - illustrations
    • - photographs
  190. List three or more oral language CONCEPTS when providing instruction on informational text.
    • - explanation of key vocabulary
    • - preview & review texts
    • - oral paraphrasing
    • - oral summarizing
  191. List three or more ACTIVITIES when providing instruction on informational text.
    • - think-pair-share
    • - linguistic patterns
    • - cooperative group discussions using discussion starters
  192. List three or more WRITING ACTIVITIES when providing instruction on informational text.
    • - pattern guides
    • - study guides
    • - learning logs
    • - data retrieval charts
    • - research report
    • - summary
  193. List three or more GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS when providing instruction on informational text.
    • - descriptions/process
    • - cause & effect
    • - main idea & detail
    • - compare & contrast
  194. List study skills that will support student learning with regard to expository text.
    • - teaching students to reread
    • - provide graphic organizers
    • - study guides
    • - use of key questions
    • - learning logs
    • - data retrieval chart
  195. When teaching about informational texts, what are ways to ensure universal access for
    struggling students
    • - pre-teach and re-teach content area vocabulary using visual aids
    • - provide students with study guide or graphic organizers to scaffold key information
    • - conduct lessons using read alouds and choral reading to enhance understanding of texts
    • - use hand-on activities to support comprehension structures
  196. When teaching about informational texts, what are ways to ensure universal access for
    students with special needs
    • - pre-teach and re-teach content area vocabulary using visual aids
    • - provide students with study guide or graphic organizers to scaffold key information
    • - conduct lessons using read alouds and choral reading to enhance understanding of texts
    • - use hand-on activities to support comprehension structures
  197. When teaching about informational texts, what are ways to ensure universal access for
    English Language Learners
    • - pre-teach vocabulary with visual representations
    • - model how to access key information from expository texts and transferring it to graphic organizers and study guides
    • - provide students with linguistic patterns for discussions
  198. When teaching about informational texts, what are ways to ensure universal access for
    advanced learners
    • - increase the pace of instruction by assigning independent research projects
    • - use multiple sources to locate information about the same topics
    • - use advanced material
  199. List three ways to assess comprehension of NARRATIVE text.
    • - multiple choice style assessments/QAR
    • - independent writing
    • - book reports
    • - literature projects
    • - essay questions/response to texts
  200. List three ways to assess for comprehension of LITERARY texts.
    • - multiple choice style assessments/QAR
    • - literary criticism
    • - poetry projects
    • - journals
    • - observation notes during discussions
  201. List three ways to assess for comprehension of EXPOSITORY texts.
    • - multiple choice style assessments/QAR
    • - research projects
    • - analysis of information across sources
    • - essay questions
    • - study guides
    • - outlines

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