Chapter 32 Pediatric Emergencies

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Chapter 32 Pediatric Emergencies
2014-05-09 22:39:05
Chapter 32 Pediatric Emergencies

Chapter 32 Pediatric Emergencies
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  1. first year of life
  2. Toddler:
    1 to 3 years
  3. Preschool-age child:
    3 to 6 years
  4. School-age child:
    6 to 12 years
  5. Adolescents:
    12 to 18 years
  6. The first month after birth is called the ____ or newborn period.
  7. A respiratory rate of __ to __ breaths/min is normal for a newborn.
    30 to 60
  8. A respiratory rate of __ to __ breaths/min is normal for a teenager.
    12 to 20
  9. Children have an oxygen demand ____ that of an adult.  This higher demand combined with a smaller oxygen reserve increases the risk of hypoxia.
  10. ____ problems are the leading cause of cardiopulmonary arrest in pediatric population.
  11. An infant’s heart can beat ___ times or more per minute.
  12. Pediatric patient may be in shock despite normal:
    blood pressure.
  13. ____ region of the head is larger, which increases the momentum of the head during a fall.
  14. Use the ____ ____ ____ (PAT) to perform a general impression.
    pediatric assessment triangle
  15. The ____ is a 15- to 30-second structured assessment tool that allows you to rapidly form a general impression without touching the patient.
  16. PAT consists of three elements and requires no equipment:
    • Appearance (muscle tone and mental status)
    • Work of breathing
    • Circulation to the skin
  17. TICLS mnemonic can help determine if the patient is sick:
    • Tone
    • Interactiveness
    • Consolability
    • Look or gaze
    • Speech or cry
  18. The five components of a hands-on ABCs assessment for children:
    • Airway
    • Breathing
    • Circulation
    • Disability
    • Exposure
  19. The ____-____ ____ ____ is helpful in assessing level of pain.
    Wong-Baker FACES Scale
  20. A significant MOI includes any fall from a height equal to or greater than:
    a pediatric patient’s height, especially with a headfirst landing
  21. Pediatric patients weighing less than __ lb should be transported in a car seat.
  22. Patients younger than _ year must be transported in a rear-facing position because of the lack of neck muscles.
  23. In cases of spinal immobilization or cardiopulmonary arrest, it is not appropriate to secure a patient in a:
    car seat.
  24. Infants, toddlers, and preschool-age children should be assessed starting at the ____ and ending at the ____.
    • feet
    • head
  25. The formula ____ = systolic blood pressure is a useful tool to determine blood pressure in children 1 to 10 years of age.
    70 + (2 × child’s age in years)
  26. Count the respirations for at least __ seconds and then double that number
  27. Assess the pulse rate by counting at least __ ____, noting quality and regularity.
    1 minute
  28. An infection in the airway below the level of the vocal cords usually caused by a virus.
  29. Signs and symptoms frequently associated with an upper airway obstruction include decreased or absent breath sounds and:
  30. ____ is usually caused by swelling of the area surrounding the vocal cords or upper airway obstruction.
  31. Signs and symptoms of a lower airway obstruction include:
    wheezing and/or crackles.
  32. A whistling sound caused by air traveling through narrowed air passages within the bronchioles.
  33. ____ are caused by the flow of air through liquid, present in the air pouches and smaller airways in the lungs.
  34. The best way to auscultate breath sounds in a pediatric patient is to listen on both sides of the chest at the level of the ____.
  35. ____ ____ are recommended to relieve a severe airway obstruction in an unconscious pediatric patient.
    Chest compressions
  36. An acute spasm of the bronchioles associated with excessive mucous production and with swelling of the mucous lining of the respiratory passages.
  37. A prolonged, unrelieved asthma attack may progress into:
    status asthmaticus.
  38. According to the World Health Organization, ____ is the leading cause of death in children worldwide.
  39. A general term that refers to an infection of the lungs.
  40. Specific viral illness of newborns and toddlers, often caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
  41. Blow-by technique at __ L/min provides more than __% oxygen concentration.
    • 6
    • 21
  42. Nasal cannula at __ to __ L/min provides __% to __% oxygen concentration.
    • 1 to 6
    • 24% to 44%
  43. Nonrebreathing mask at __ to __ L/min provides up to __% oxygen concentration.
    • 10 to 15
    • 90
  44. Bag-mask device at __ to __ L/min provides __% oxygen concentration.
    • 10 to 15
    • 90
  45. Children with respirations of less than __ breaths/min or more than __ breaths/min, and altered level of consciousness, and/or an inadequate tidal volume should receive assisted ventilations with a bag-mask device.
    • 12
    • 60
  46. The mnemonic AEIOU-TIPPS reflects the major causes of AMS:
    • Alcohol
    • Epilepsy, endocrine, electrolytes
    • Insulin
    • Opiates and other drugs
    • Uremia
    • Trauma, temperature
    • Infection
    • Psychogenic
    • Poison
    • Shock, stroke, space-occupying lesion, subarachnoid hemorrhage
  47. Febrile seizures are common in children between the ages of __ months and __ years.
  48. In ____ is left untreated, can lead to peritonitis or shock.  Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum, which lines the abdominal cavity.
  49. Temperatures of °F or higher are considered abnormal.
  50. Fever is rarely life threatening, but fever with a ____ can be the sign of a serious condition, such as meningitis.
  51. Drowning is the ____ most common cause of unintentional death among children in the United States.
  52. Children younger than __ years are at particular risk for drowning.
  53. Trauma is the number ____ killer of children in the United States.
  54. Young children require padding under the torso to maintain a ____ position.
  55. At around __ to __ years of age, children no longer require padding underneath the torso. They can lie supine on the board.
    8 to 10
  56. Minor: Partial-thickness burns involving less than __% of body surface
  57. Moderate: Partial-thickness burns involving  of body 10% to 20%surface
    10% to 20%
  58. Critical: Any full-thickness burn, a partial-thickness burn involving more than __% of body surface, or any burn involving the hands, feet, face, airway, or genitalia
  59. If the patient has ____, ventilate.
  60. The ____ triage system was developed for pediatric patients.  Intended for patients younger than __ years and weighing less than  ___ lb.
    • JumpSTART
    • 8
    • 100
  61. There are ____ triage categories in the JumpSTART system, designated by colors corresponding to different levels of urgency.
  62. What color is given to children that are able to walk (except in infants) using the JumpSTART triage system?
    Green: minor, not in need of immediate treatment
  63. What color is given to children that have spontaneous breathing, with a peripheral pulse, and appropriately responsive to painful stimuli using the JumpSTART triage system?
    Yellow: delayed treatment
  64. What color is given to children with respirations of less than 15 or greater than 45 breaths/min, apnea responsive to positioning or rescue breathing, respiratory failure, breathing but without a pulse, or inappropriate painful response using the JumpSTART triage system?
    Red: immediate response
  65. What color is given to children that are apneic and without pulse, or apneic and unresponsive to rescue breathing using the JumpSTART triage system?
    Black and considered deceased or expectant deceased
  66. CHILD ABUSE mnemonic:
    • Consistency of the injury with the child's developmental age
    • History inconsistent with injury
    • Inappropriate parental concerns
    • Lack of supervision
    • Delay in seeking care
    • Affect
    • Bruises of varying ages
    • Unusual injury patters
    • Suspicious circumstances
    • Environmental clues
  67. Infants who are not breathing and are cyanotic and unresponsive when found sometimes resume breathing and color with stimulation.  These children have had what is called an ____ ____-____ ____.  Called “near-miss SIDS” in the past.
    apparent life-threatening event (ALTE)
  68. Saying their first word, sitting without support, and teething are initially noticed in what age group?
    6 to 12 months
  69. Which of the following is NOT initially seen in children 12 to 18 months old?
    A. Speak four to six words
    B. Can open doors
    C. Understand cause and effect
    D. Know the major body parts
    C. Understand cause and effect
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. When you assess a pediatric patient, it's best to place ____ ____ on the patient's chest to feel the rise and fall of the chest wall.
    both hands
  71. Which of the following is NOT an infection that can cause an airway obstruction in pediatric patients?
    A. Pneumonia
    B. Croup
    C. Asthma
    D. Epiglottitis
    C. Asthma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. All of the following are signs and symptoms of pneumonia in a pediatric patient EXCEPT:
    A. hypothermia
    B. nasal flaring
    C. bradycardia
    D. grunting
    C. bradycardia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. Which of the following is NOT a common cause of shock in pediatric patients?
    A. Diseases of the heart
    B. Severe infection
    C. Dehydration
    D. Renal failure
    D. Renal failure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. Which of the following populations is at the greatest risk for meningitis?
    A. Children with heart conditions
    B. Females
    C. Children with head trauma
    D. Children with a family history of meningitis
    C. Children with head trauma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. Which of the following is NOT a question you would ask if you suspected a poisoning emergency?
    A. Are there any changes in behavior or LOC?
    B. Was there any choking or coughing after exposure?
    C. Did the substance have an odor?
    D. What is the substance involved?
    C. Did the substance have an odor?
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. True or false?  Sprains are uncommon in the pediatric population.
  77. True or false?  Extremity injuries are managed much differently for children than for adults.
  78. A viral infection that may cause obstruction of the upper airway in a child is called:
    A. epiglottitis.
    B. asthma.
    C. croup.
    D. bronchitis.
    C. croup.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. A 4-year-old female ingested an unknown quantity of liquid drain cleaner. Your assessment reveals that she is conscious and alert, is breathing adequately, and has skin burns around her mouth. You should:
    A. determine why the ingestion occurred.
    B. place her supine and elevate her legs.
    C. give 12.5 to 25 g of activated charcoal.
    D. monitor her airway and give oxygen.
    D. monitor her airway and give oxygen.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. Cardiac arrest in the pediatric population is MOST commonly the result of:
    A. a congenital cardiovascular defect.
    B. respiratory or circulatory failure.
    C. lethal cardiac rhythm disturbances.
    D. a complete airway obstruction.
    B. respiratory or circulatory failure.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)