Ch. 10 Lower Back Function

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  1. Factors Affecting ROM
    • Age
    • Sex
    • Nature
    • Nurture
    • Posture
    • Disease
    • Genotype
  2. Age and Sex
    • ROM typically decreases with adulthood
    • Unknown how much is attributable to aging or to the reduction in physical activity
  3. Nature and Nurture
    • Individuals may increase ROM by participating in flexibility training programs
    • A person's genotype can limit flexibility 
    • Some people have relatively poor flexibility; no matter how hard they train their flexibility improves nominally 
    • Some research suggests that improving ROM may relate more to the ability to tolerate pain than to actual changes in connective-tissue length
  4. Posture
    If individuals do not use their full ROM at a joint, tendinous tissue may compensate by shortening
  5. List the two common types of arthritis
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Osteoarthritis
  6. Arthritis
    Can have a debilitating effect on ROM because it affects articular cartilage
  7. Articular Cartilage
    • Also called hyaline cartilage
    • is avascular = does not have a blood supply, which means its healing capability is poor
  8. Rheumatoid arthrtis
    • Affects females more than males and can occur anytime in life but most often between the ages of 25-60
    • It appears to be an autoimmune disease in some cases, but exact cause is unknown
    • it can affect a few joint (pauciarticular)or many joints (polyarticular)
  9. Osteoarthritis
    • Is much more prevalent and accounts for 90%-95% of arthritis cases
    • It can be considered  a disease of aging because after age 70 it affects about 85% of the population
    • Its cause is usually some injury or mechanical derangement
  10. Osteoporosis
    • Is characterized by a loss in BMD or bone mass
    • Affect women after menopause, also can affect men and may be genetically influenced
    • Common osteoporotic sites include the hip, wrist, and vertebrae
    • Common characteristic of these sites is the cancellous bone (spongy bone) predominates
  11. Osteoporosos in the spine?
    • Can cause buckling and compression of the vertebrae
    • A person with this condition may show extreme curves in the spine as well as loss of ROM
    • Fortunately, cancellous bone can become denser through weight-bearing activities and resistance training
  12. Scoliosis
    • Is an extreme lateral curvature of the thoracic spine
    • Exercise cannot correct it
    • Adam's test (pg.201)
  13. Lordotic curve
    • Spinal flexion between the rib cage and the sacrum is limited to the straightening if the normal lordotic cruve
    • Ballistic back extension movements should be avoided and back extensions should not exceed the exercise's normal lumbar lordosis
  14. Image Upload
    Arthritis can decrease mobility in the spine if the site is a facet joint
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Ch. 10 Lower Back Function
2014-05-11 00:59:07
Fitness Professional Handbook
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