Ch. 10 Lower Back Function

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  1. Factors Affecting ROM
    • Age
    • Sex
    • Nature
    • Nurture
    • Posture
    • Disease
    • Genotype
  2. Age and Sex
    • ROM typically decreases with adulthood
    • Unknown how much is attributable to aging or to the reduction in physical activity
  3. Nature and Nurture
    • Individuals may increase ROM by participating in flexibility training programs
    • A person's genotype can limit flexibility 
    • Some people have relatively poor flexibility; no matter how hard they train their flexibility improves nominally 
    • Some research suggests that improving ROM may relate more to the ability to tolerate pain than to actual changes in connective-tissue length
  4. Posture
    If individuals do not use their full ROM at a joint, tendinous tissue may compensate by shortening
  5. List the two common types of arthritis
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Osteoarthritis
  6. Arthritis
    Can have a debilitating effect on ROM because it affects articular cartilage
  7. Articular Cartilage
    • Also called hyaline cartilage
    • is avascular = does not have a blood supply, which means its healing capability is poor
  8. Rheumatoid arthrtis
    • Affects females more than males and can occur anytime in life but most often between the ages of 25-60
    • It appears to be an autoimmune disease in some cases, but exact cause is unknown
    • it can affect a few joint (pauciarticular)or many joints (polyarticular)
  9. Osteoarthritis
    • Is much more prevalent and accounts for 90%-95% of arthritis cases
    • It can be considered  a disease of aging because after age 70 it affects about 85% of the population
    • Its cause is usually some injury or mechanical derangement
  10. Osteoporosis
    • Is characterized by a loss in BMD or bone mass
    • Affect women after menopause, also can affect men and may be genetically influenced
    • Common osteoporotic sites include the hip, wrist, and vertebrae
    • Common characteristic of these sites is the cancellous bone (spongy bone) predominates
  11. Osteoporosos in the spine?
    • Can cause buckling and compression of the vertebrae
    • A person with this condition may show extreme curves in the spine as well as loss of ROM
    • Fortunately, cancellous bone can become denser through weight-bearing activities and resistance training
  12. Scoliosis
    • Is an extreme lateral curvature of the thoracic spine
    • Exercise cannot correct it
    • Adam's test (pg.201)
  13. Lordotic curve
    • Spinal flexion between the rib cage and the sacrum is limited to the straightening if the normal lordotic cruve
    • Ballistic back extension movements should be avoided and back extensions should not exceed the exercise's normal lumbar lordosis
  14. Arthritis can decrease mobility in the spine if the site is a facet joint

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Ch. 10 Lower Back Function
2014-05-11 00:59:07
Fitness Professional Handbook
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