Introduction to the Human Body Chapter 1
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Is the branch of science that studies the structure, or morphology, of the body.
Is the branch of science that describes how the body works, or functions.
Is the branch of science that decribes the consequences of the improper functioning of the body parts.
Basic unit of life.
Specialized groups of cells.
- Tisses that are arranged into organs such as the heart, stomach, and kidney.
- 78 Organs total.
Group of organs.
Consis of the skin and related stuctures such as hair and nails. Forms a covering for the body, help regulate body tempature, and contain some of the structures necesssary for sensation.
Forms the basic framework of the body. Consists of primarily bones, joints, and cartilage.
- Consist of 3 types of muscles.
- Skeletal muscles attached to the bones and are responsible for the movement of the skeleton and maintenanceof body posture.
- Consist of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs.
- Sensory nerves receive information from the environment and bring it to the spinal cord and brain, where it is interpreted.
Consist of the heart and blood vessels.Blood carries nutrients and oxygen to all the body's cell and also carries the waste away from the cells to the organs of excretion.
Consist of the lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, lymph, and other lymphiod organs. Lymph and lymphiod structures play an important role in fuild balance and in the defense of the body against pathogens and other foreign material.
Consists of the lungs and other structures that conduct air to and from the lungs
Oxygen rich goes into the lungs and carbon dioxide (waste) out of the lungs
Consists of organs designed to eat, break it down into substances that can be absorbed by the body, and eliminate the waste.
Consist of organs and structures that enable humans to reproduce.
Staying the same. The body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment.
Example Blood sugar stays within normal limits with eating or even with fasting for 6 hours.
- Mechanisms to control
- Example - Temperature control, blood sugar control, water balance, blood pressure regulation, and regulation of plasma sodium levels.
Consist of numerous glands that secret hormones and chemical substances that regulate body activites such as growth, reproduction, metabolism, and water balance.
Consist of kidneys and other structures that help excrete waste products from the body through urine.
Helps control the amount and composition of water and other substances to reproduce.
Body is standing erect, face forward, arms on it's side and toes/palms directed forward.
- 1. Above another part.
- 2. Below another part.
- 1. Front surface; ventral.
- 2. Back surface; dorsal.
- 1. vertical line splitting the body in half.
- 2. Away from the body. Ex The ears are lateral from the nose.
- 1. Closer to the trunk.
- 2. from out to the trunk.
- Ex. The wrist is proximal to the fingers.
- The fingers are distal to the wrist.
- 1. Located on or near the surface of the skin.
- 2. Away from the surface of the skin. (Bones)
- 1. Located in the center.
- 2. Away from the center.
Not working normally. Associated with various disorders.
Sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes
The internal organs of the body, specifically those within the chest (as the heart or lungs) or abdomen (as the liver, pancreas or intestines).
Dorsal, Cranial , Spinal , Ventral, Thoracic, and abdominopelvic cavity
The area between the lungs. The organs in this area include the heart and its large veins and arteries, the trachea, the esophagus, the bronchi, and lymph nodes.
In human anatomy, the pleural cavity is the body cavity that surrounds the lungs. The pleura is a serous membrane which folds back onto itself to form a two-layered, membrane structure. The thin space between the two pleural layers is known as the pleural cavity; it normally contains a small amount of pleural fluid. The outer pleura (parietal pleura) is attached to the chest wall. The inner pleura (visceral pleura) covers the lungs and adjoining structures, viz. blood vessels, bronchi and nerves.
- The pleural cavity is composed of the layers of the membrane lining the
- lung and the chest cavity.
- The abdominal cavity is the body cavity of the human body (and animal bodies) that holds the bulk of the viscera. It is located below (or inferior to) the thoracic cavity, and above the pelvic cavity. It is a part of the abdominopelvic cavity. Organs of the abdominal cavity include the stomach,
- liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, kidneys, and large intestine. The abdominal cavity is lined with a protective membrane termed the peritoneum. The kidneys are located in the abdominal cavity behind the peritoneum, in the retroperitoneum. The viscera are also covered, in the front, with a layer of peritoneum called the greater omentum (or omental apron).
The pelvic cavity is a body cavity that is bounded by the bones of the pelvis and which primarily contains reproductive organs, the urinary bladder, and the rectum. The pelvis is a marvel of physiology and is deceptively complex. It contains the lower urinary tract, reproductive system, lower digestive tract, major arteries and veins, muscle systems, nerve systems and bone systems. They all have to work together in a little crowded "house". It can be affected by many different diseases and by many drugs in many different ways. One part may impact upon another, for example constipation may overload the rectum and compress the urinary bladder, or childbirth might damage the pudendal nerves and later lead to anal weakness.
1. Division into Quadrants
2. Division into regions
1.Abdominopelvic divided into 4 quadrants; RLQ,RUQ, LLQ, and LUQ.
2. 9 regions
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