304 Final

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304 Final
2014-05-11 04:23:03

To help memorize terms for 304 Leading Organizations
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  1. What is Organization Structure?
    This defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped and coordinated.
  2. What are the six elements of Organizational Structure?
    • 1. Work Specialization
    • 2. Chain of Command
    • 3. Span of Control
    • 4. Centralization/ Decentralization
    • 5. Formalization
    • 6. Departmentation
  3. What is Work Specialization?
    • Also referred to as division of labor.
    • It describes the degree to which activities in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs. Specific tasks are identified and individuals are assigned to work on that task.
  4. Pros and Cons of Work Specialization?
    • Pros:
    • Employee skill through performing a task successfully increases through repetition
    • Increase productivity and efficiency
    • Gain economy of scale
    • Easier and less costly to find workers to do specific and repetitive tasks
    • Cons:
    • At a certain point, productivity falls and satisfaction decreases
  5. What is Chain of Command?
    • A clear connection of authority and responsibility in an organization that defines who reports to whom.
    • However, there is need for more flexibility, innovation, and fast response
  6. Authority
    Refers to the rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect the orders to be obeyed
  7. Unity of command
    A concept which states that a person should have one and only on superior to whom they are directly responsible
  8. What is Span of Control?
    • This determines the number of levels and managers an organization has.
    • The narrower (3-4) the span, the taller the hierarchy (more level of management).
    • The wider (7-10) the span, the flatter the hierarchy
    • Managers had to be there to maintain order
  9. The number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and effectively direct is increased by...
    • Technology
    • Standardized tasks
    • Decentralization
    • Proper training
  10. What is Centralization/Decentralization?
    The degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization
  11. Centralized Organization
    Top management makes their decisions with little or no input from lower-level personnel. At this level, organizations are less flexible and responsive.
  12. Decentralized Organization
    Lower-level personnel provide input and/or are given the discretion to make decisions. At this level, action can be taken more quickly to solve problems, and employees are less likely to feel alienated from upper management.
  13. What is Formalization?
    • The degree to which the jobs within an organization are standardized, and to what degree rules and policies are applied.
    • Increases efficiency
  14. High Formalization
    The employee has a minimum amount of discretion over what is to be done, when it is to be done, and how they should do it. Inputs are handled exactly the same way, resulting in consistent and uniform output. There are lots of rules and clearly defined policies.
  15. Low Formalization
    Employees are granted a great deal of freedom to exercise discretion in their work. Standardization and the amount of rules are minimal.
  16. What is Departmentation?
    The basis by which jobs within an organization are grouped. Once jobs have been divided through Work Specialization, they need to be grouped so that common tasks can be coordinated.
  17. What are some types of Departmentation?
    • Functional departmentation
    • Product departmentation
    • Geographic departmentation
    • Process departmentation
    • Customer departmentation
  18. Departmentation by Function
    Grouping specialists based on the functions they perform. Seeks to achieve economies of scale by placing people with common skills and orientations into common units
  19. Departmentation by Product
    • Product = Self-contained unit.
    • Grouping jobs based on different products made by the organization. This allows for increased accountability for product performance, since all activities are under the direction of a single manager.
    • Resolve conflict, but costly due to duplicate functions
  20. Departmentation by Geography
    • Grouping jobs based on geographical region or territory. Cultural differences, shipping needs, currency, and trade involve issues may be best handled through this type of departmentalization.
  21. Departmentation by Customer
    • The focus is on the needs of the customers
    • Customers' problems and needs vary, and thus specialists must be in place to provide these different customers with various levels of attention and knowledge.
  22. What are five types of Organizational Designs?
    • 1. Simple Structure
    • 2. Bureaucracy
    • 3. Matrix
    • 4. Virtual
    • 5. Boundaryless / Horizontal
  23. Simple Structure
    • Structure that lacks structure
    • Authority is centralized at the owner
    • Work specialization: none
    • Deparmentation: low degree of functional departmentation
    • Chain of command: clear
    • Span of control: wide with only two or three levels
    • Centralized: at a single person
    • Formalization: little to none
  24. Pros and Cons of Simple Structure
    • Pros:
    • The strength of this structure lies in its simplicity (easy, straightforward)
    • It is fast, flexible and inexpensive to maintain, and accountability is clear
    • Cons:
    • Highly inefficient
    • Depends on owner
    • Efficiency decreases as the firm grows
  25. Bureaucracy
    • Work specialization: high tasks are standardized and this is the key element for this type of Organizational Design
    • Departmentation: tasks are grouped into functional departments
    • Chain of command: decision making follows the chain of command
    • Span of control: narrow
    • Centralized: high, decisions are made at the top. Made possible by standardized operations and high formalization
    • Formalization: high. rules set in place to deal with conflicts that arise with growth. Policies are drawn up to deal with politics and to fine the job or task
  26. Pros and Cons of Bereaucracy
    • Pros:
    • Efficiency
    • Low labor costs
    • Take costs down and sell more
    • Employees are matched to a task and paid accordingly
    • Cons:
    • Organization is bounded by rules, policies and procedures
    • Coordination problems - functional unit goals can override the overall goals of the organization
    • Specialization can create subunit conflict
    • No room for modification for problems that not precisely fit the rules
  27. Matrix
    • Combine two structures (functional & product)
    • Two bosses
    • Work specialization: low
    • Deparmentation: combines functional and product
    • Chain of command: breaks the unity of command concept. Dual Chain of Command (one has more power)
    • Span of control: wide
    • Decentralized: efficiency allocation
    • Formalization: low - result of direct and frequent contract between different specialties
    • One side must have more power
    • Must negotiate and collaborate to make it work
    • Marshall school of business
  28. Pros and Cons of Matrix
    • Pros:
    • Coordination across multiple products and departments
    • Efficient allocation of specialists and professionals
    • Economies of scale
    • Cons:
    • Broken unit of command (conflict - who to listen)
    • Stress
    • Leadership skill
    • Confusion and power struggles
  29. Virtual Organization
    • Small controlled core
    • You choose the thing you do best and outsource everything else
    • Work specialization: little to none
    • Departmentation: little to none
    • Chain of command: little to none
    • Span of control: Control is lost as work is outsourced.
    • Centralized: highly
    • Formalization: little to none
  30. Pros and Cons of Virtual Organization
    • Pros:
    • Gain scale without mass (other business functions that are cheaper and better)
    • Flexible and adaptive
    • Quickly access new market
    • Avoid too much responsibility
    • Cons:
    • Loss of control
    • Difficult to form and manage
    • Require trust 
    • Cannot contract for everything
  31. Boundaryless or Horizontal Organization
    • Organize around core processes
    • Use multi-disciplinary teams to manage processes
    • Only one or two levels of management
    • Owner for each process
    • Communication via networked computers
    • Work specialization: none
    • Departmentation: multidisciplinary teams are empowered and replace functions and departments
    • Chain of command: none
    • Span of control: limitless
    • Decentralized: highly
    • Formalization: little to none
  32. Pros and Cons of Boundaryless or Horizontal Organization
    • Pros:
    • Highly flexible & business focused
    • Reduce control & coordination costs
    • More flexible and innovative
    • Communication, organizational processes and feedback are improved
    • Much more responsive
    • Cons:
    • Difficult to implement
    • Require new skills and methods
    • New information technology
    • People must posses certain skills to communicate effectively, while knowledge and proper training is a must
  33. Mechanistic Organization
    • High Formalization
    • High Centralization
    • High Specialization
    • Rigid Deparmentalization
    • Clear Chain of Command
    • Narrow Span of Control
    • = Bereaucracy
  34. Organic Model
    • Low Formalization
    • High Decentralization
    • Cross-functional teams & cross hierarchical teams
    • Free flow of information
    • Wide span of control
    • = Simple, Matrix, Virtual, Boundaryless/Horizontal
  35. 4 Determinants of Structure
    • Strategy
    • Size
    • Technology
    • Environment
  36. Strategy
    An organization structure is a means to help management achieve its objective. As a result, an organization must have a strategy before they can choose the structure that will complement best.
  37. Three Types of Strategies
    • Innovation
    • Minimize Cost
    • Imitation
  38. Innovation Strategy
    The Organic Model works best with this type of strategy. This emphasizes the introduction of major new products and services
  39. Minimizing Cost Strategy
    The Mechanistic Model works best with this type of strategy. This emphasizes tight cost controls, avoidance of unnecessary innovation or marketing expenses, and price cutting
  40. Imitation Strategy
    The Organic Model works best. This seeks to move into new products or new markets only after their viability has already been proven
  41. Size
    • Can have a considerable effect on its structure
    • As an organization grows, it becomes more Mechanistic
  42. Technology
    • Deals with how an organization transfers its inputs into outputs. The degree of task routines provides insight into the organizations structure.
    • If tasks in the org are routine, then that organization is Mechanistic
    • Routine tasks are standardized and are associated with departmentalized structures
    • Routine tasks are strongly associated to formalization
  43. Environment
    • Refers to institutions or forces outside of the organization that potentially affect the organization's performance.
    • The degree of uncertainty provides insight into the organization structure
    • A low level of uncertainty in the org environment symbolizes a Mechanistic structure
  44. Structural Fit
  45. What is Organizational Culture?
    The system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes organization from others
  46. Elements that derives Culture
    • 1. Values: what is important
    • 2. Beliefs: How things work
    • 3. Norms: How members should behave
  47. Dominant Culture
    Expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organizations members. This is the macro view of culture that gives an organization its distinct personality.
  48. Subcultures
    These are mini cultures that develop within large organizations, and they reflect common problems, situations, or expressions that members face
  49. Strength of Culture
    • A culture in which core values are intensely held and widely shared.
    • The more members who accept these core values, the stronger their commitment is to those values, and this results in a strong organizational culture.
  50. Characteristics that are valued in the Organization Culture
    • 1. Innovation and Risk Taking
    • 2. Attention to Detail
    • 3. Outcome Orientation
    • 4. People Orientation
    • 5. Team Orientation
    • 6. Aggressiveness
    • 7. Stability
  51. Innovation and Risk Taking
    The degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks
  52. Attention to Detail
    The degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis and attention to detail
  53. Outcome Orientation
    The degree to which management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on techniques used to achieve those outcomes
  54. People Orientation
    The degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization
  55. Team Orientation
    The degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals
  56. Aggressiveness
    The degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing
  57. Role in Organization Effectiveness (Strong Culture)
    • 1. Encourages efficient communication, coordination & control
    • 2. Can be a substitute for formalization (strong culture = everyone knows what is right and what they should do)
    • 3. Provides a commitment to the organization
    • 4. Will be successful when their culture fits overall strategy and competitive environment
  58. Culture as a Liability
    • When the shared values are not in agreement with those that will further the organization's effective, culture becomes a liability
    • 1. Barrier to change
    • 2. Barrier to diversity
    • 3. Barrier to acquisitions & mergers
  59. Barrier to Change
    When the organization's environment is dynamic and it is undergoing rapid change, its culture may no longer be appropriate. Consistency in behavior is an asset when the environment is stable, but if the environment changes, it may be difficult to respond.
  60. Barrier to diversity
    Hiring new employees that are not like the majority of the organization makes it difficult for some to accept the core cultural values.
  61. Barriers to Acquisitions and Mergers
    Whether or not a Merger or Acquisition is successful may depend on how well the two organization's cultures match up
  62. How is the Organizational Culture Formed
  63. Values of the Founder
    They have a major impact on the organizations early culture. They have a vision of what the organization should be. Strongly the hiring criteria.
  64. Selection Process / Criteria
    The goal is to identify and hire individuals who have the knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform the jobs within the organization successfully. Must insure a proper match with the organization.
  65. Top Management
    Through what they say and how they behave, top management establishes norms that filter down through the organization
  66. Socialization
    This is the process that adapts employees to the organizations culture. The most critical stage of socialization is at the time of entry.
  67. Employees learn about Organization Culture through...
    • 1. Stories
    • 2. Rituals
    • 3. Material symbols
    • 4. Language
  68. Stories (Org Culture)
    They provide explanations and legitimacy for current organizational practices
  69. Rituals (Org Cul)
    These are repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values of the organization
  70. Material symbols (Org Culture)
    These symbols, such as attire and office size/layout, convey to employee who is important, the degree of egalitarian desired by top management, and the kinds of behavior that are appropriate
  71. Language (Org Culture)
    Language is used as a way to identify members of culture or subculture. By learning this language, members attest to their acceptance of the culture, and, in doing so, help to preserve it.
  72. Corporate Strategy
    How firm uses its resources to gain competitive advantage
  73. Human Resource Strategy
    How firm uses human resources to implement corporate strategy
  74. Human Resource Management
    Policies and practices used to implement human resource strategy
  75. 4 Processes of the Human Resource Management
    • 1. Selection - selecting the right people
    • 2. Training & Development
    • 3. Accessing Performance
    • 4. Reward
    • 5. Union Management Relations
  76. Selection (HRM)
    The process begins with selecting the right people and builds from there. Most of the Human Resource contact occurs when applying and/or interview for the job. Identifies competent candidates and accurately matches them to the job and organization
  77. Training and Development (HRM)
    Improves the skills necessary to complete the job. An increase in ability improves the potential to work at a higher level. Also works to increase the employees self-efficacy
  78. Accessing Performance (HRM)
    Performance evaluations are done using an individual's contribution as a basis for making reward allocation decisions.
  79. Reward (HRM)
    Based on the performance evaluation, an individual is rewarded
  80. How has the Selection Process change?
    It has become increasingly flexible and provides more information
  81. Selection: Key Decision Makers
    Change from Managers to applicant, co-workers & manager.
  82. Selection: Basis of
    Change from Validated Tests to Open Exchange of Information & Realistic Job Previews
  83. Selection: Selection for
    Change from Specific Jobs to Teams & Corporate Cultures
  84. Selection: Features Selected for
    Change from Ability to Do Job to Ability to Learn; needs for involvement & challenge; team skills
  85. Why Training & Development? What Changed?
    • From: Enable people to perform task
    • To: Facilitate change; human development; effective task performance
  86. Who to Train & Develop?
    • From: Individuals
    • To: Individuals & teams
  87. What to Train & Develop?
    • From: Specific job requirement
    • To: Broad skills; social skills; system-wide learning
  88. When to Train & Develop?
    • From: As needed
    • To: Ongoing & intense
  89. How to Train & Develop?
    • From: On-the-job & classroom
    • To: Many methods; cross-training; team development
  90. Performance Appraisal: Who is the Appraiser?
    • From: Manager
    • To: Appriasee, co-workers, manager & others
  91. Performance Appraisal: Role of Appriasee?
    • From: Recipient of feedback
    • To: Active participant in all phases
  92. Content of Performance Appraisal?
    • From: Job defined
    • To: Participant defined
  93. Process of Performance Appraisal?
    • From: Validated measures
    • To: Negotiation of reality
  94. Timing of Performance Appraisal?
    • From: Periodic
    • To: Variable depending on purposes
  95. Communication of Rewards
    • From: Secret (decreased moral, performance and motivation) Expectancy and Equity Theory
    • To: Open
  96. Decision Making: Rewards
    • From: Top Down
    • To: Wide Involvement
  97. Pay for Performance: Rewards
    • From: Individual Merit
    • To: Business Sucess
  98. Reward Mix
    • From: Standardized
    • To: Individual choice; Cafeteria style, where employees are allow to pick and chose their rewards
  99. Base Pay: Reward
    • From: Job based
    • To: Skill based; by learning new tasks, an individual can have a higher pay. This allows for flexibility and encourages employees to learn new skills
  100. Union-Management Relations: Motivation to Join
    • From: Job security & wages
    • To: Job security, wages & quality of work life
  101. Union-Management Relations: Nature of Relationship
    • From: Adversarial
    • To: Collaborative
  102. Union-Management Relations: Nature of Agreement
    • From: Collective bargaining
    • To: Collective bargaining & cooperative alliances
  103. Union-Management Relations: Balance of Power
    • From: Asymmetric
    • To: Symmetric
  104. Union-Management Relations: Dispute Settlement
    • From: Strikes, slowdowns, & grievances
    • To: Mediation, arbitration & compromise
  105. Organizational Change & 5 Forces for Change
    • Changing environments is requiring many organizations to adapt. Change deals with instability and the influences that drive change are:
    • 1. Workforce
    • 2. Technology
    • 3. Competition
    • 4. Social Trends
    • 5. Political Trends
  106. Workforce (Org Change)
    • Diversity existing in the workforce such as culture, background, and training
    • Baby-boomers are 'grey'
    • Single parents
  107. Technology (Org Change)
    Technology is always advancing, and as a result, changing jobs and organizations
  108. Competition (Org Change)
    Competition is global and the organization must change to stay current with competitors
  109. Social Trends (Org Change)
    People use cell phones, telecommuting
  110. Political Trends (Org Change)
    • Political shocks
    • Russia falling apart
  111. Types of Organization Change
    • 1. Incremental Change & Revolutionary Change
    • 2. Reactive Change and Anticipatory Change
  112. Incremental Change
    Small change
  113. Revolutionary Change
    The company must make large changes and the entire company has to be able to adapt
  114. Reactive Change
    Change occurs as a reaction to events that are forced on the organization
  115. Anticipatory Change
    Change occurs in anticipation of events that may occur
  116. Adaption
    • Most companies change in this manner
    • Little change to status quo
    • Change is periodic
    • Problem solving- solve it and come back to normal
    • Reactive & Incremental
  117. Re-creation
    • Almost too late to change
    • Rapidly changing environment
    • Reactive & Revolutionary change
  118. Fine Tuning
    • Firms that continuously make small incremental changes to status quo to improve it (Japanese)
    • Anticipatory & Incremental change
  119. Transformation
    • Was attempted by Jack Welch at GE
    • We have to do more in the future
    • Anticipatory and Revolutionary change
  120. 5 Sources of Individual Resistance to Change
    • 1. Habit
    • 2. Security
    • 3. Economic Factors
    • 4. Fear of Unknown
    • 5. Selective Information Processing
  121. Habit (Individual Resistance to Change)
    • Individuals develop consistent behaviors that they are not able to easily change.
    • We don't have to think about them, they are automatic
    • Developed through our recurring behavior
    • Hard to change
  122. Security (Individual Resistance to Change)
    • Deals with the stability in the organization
    • Needs for security
    • Most of us prefer a known presence, even if it is not the best because some unknown condition may be worse
  123. Economic Factors (Individual Resistance to Change)
    Many people worry about lower incomes
  124. Fear of Unknown (Individual Resistance to Change)
    Not knowing what will happen in the future may lead to resistance
  125. Selective Information Processing (Individual Resistance to Change)
    Individuals may interpret different situations differently and they react accordingly
  126. 4 Sources of Organizational Resistance to Change
    • 1. Structural Inertia
    • 2. Limited Focus of Change
    • 3. Group Inertia
    • 4. Threats to Expertise, Power Relationships & Resource Allocations
  127. Structural Inertia (Org Resistance to Change)
    This is typical in bureaucracies. The organization is slow to make changes when they are unaware of what is going on.
  128. Limited Focus of Change (Org Resistance to Change)
    How much change will the organization choose to take on? Will they take small steps?
  129. Group Inertia (Org Resistance to Change)
    Groups and teams are slow to adapt to change
  130. Threats to Expertise, Power Relationships & Resource Allocations
    When organizations go through large scale changes, the dynamics of the organization have to go through changes as well. Issues of expertise, power relationship, and resource allocation arise as a result
  131. 6 Ways to Overcome Resistance to Change
    • Positive Outcomes
    • 1. Education & Communication
    • 2. Participation
    • 3. Facilitation & Support
    • Negative Outcomes
    • 4. Negotiation
    • 5. Manipulation & Cooptation
    • 6. Coercion
  132. Education and Communication to overcome resistance to change
    • Knowledge of change is needed before people are going change
    • Help people understand new roles and responsibilities
  133. Participation to overcome resistance to change
    • People are involved in decision making
    • People are likely to be committed to be involved in implementing the decision they made
    • Downside: companies might not have time, knowledge, skills and information to be participative and train people
  134. Facilitation & Support to overcome resistance to change
    • Get people training and counsel them in terms of overcoming some of the stress of change
    • A range of supportive effort reduces resistance
  135. Negotiation to overcome resistance to change
    • Involves compromising with individuals and exchanging something of value
    • Trade-offs exist
    • With certain power and stake over
  136. Manipulation & Cooptation
    • Manipulation: refers to convert influence attempts such as twisting or distorting facts to make them more attractive
    • Cooptation: a form of manipulation and participation, seeking to buy off the leaders of a resistance by giving them a key role in the change decision
  137. Coercion to overcome resistance to change
    • Involves the application of direct threats or force on those that resist change
    • Punishment
  138. Lewin's Three-Step Change Model
  139. Unfreezing Status Quo
    • To loosen up in order for change to occur.
    • The proper combination of Restraining Forces and Driving Forces must be considered.
    • Increase Restraining; Decrease Driving
    • Decrease Restraining; Increase Driving
    • A Combination of both

  140. Restraining Forces
    Forces that are resisting and/or preventing change
  141. Driving Forces
    Forces that are driving change
  142. Movement to New State
    Where the organization makes the change
  143. Refreezing Changes
    • Once the change has been implemented, it must be refrozen so that it can be sustained over time
    • The objective: to stabilize the new situation by once again balancing the Driving and Restraining Forces
  144. Lewin's Three-Step Change Model
    Deals with Adaptation - change that is Incremental and Reactive
  145. Organizational Development (OD)
    • Approach to apply all the knowledge learned from this course
    • The more firm has the internal capacity to solve its own problems- to change and improve itself- the more developed it is
  146. What are the goals of Organization Development
    • 1. Improve organization effectiveness
    • 2. Improve organization's capacity to solve own problems and change itself
  147. The Values needed for Organizational Development
    • 1. Respect for people
    • 2. Trust and Support
    • 3. The sharing of power and participation
    • 4. Openness of information
  148. OD Interventions (4)
    • 1. Human Process Intervention
    • 2. Technostructural Intervention
    • 3. Human Resource Management Interventions
    • 4. Strategic Interventions
  149. Human Process Intervention
    • How people communicate, how they get along, how they make decisions
    • Team building: making them more effective, team-based organizations
    • Conflict resolution: new methods to resolve conflicts at different levels: people, teams, organizations; clean up these human processes as they were a mess
  150. Technostructural Interventions
    • To design work to make it more motivating and effective, to get people more involved and more communicated
    • Matrix organization and others are developed
    • Job enrichment & self-managing teams
    • Employee empowerment
    • Organization design
  151. Human Resource Management Intervetions
    • Ways to get more performance through reward system
    • Gainsharing & skill-based pay
    • Career development
  152. Strategic Interventions
    • Occur at the executive level
    • The newest ones
    • Organization transformation
    • Strategic alliances - how them help compete globally
  153. OD Application Issues
    • 1. Differences in Organization Culture: Cultural values - what values, norms and beliefs are inherent in the organization culture
    • 2. Differences in National Culture: Is there individualism or collectivism? Is there a high power distance or low power distance?
    • 3. Politics of Change: What type of resistance is expected?
    • 4. Ethics of Control: Coincides with values, such as respect for people, power sharing and trust & support
  154. Center for Effective Organizations (CEO)
    • Action Research: helping the organization learn to improve itself. Generate new knowledge that can be applied to other organizations
    • Research Scientists and Faculty Members
    • Work on Projects
  155. Types of Projects that CEO work on
    • Strategic change
    • Designing high-performing organization
    • Team-based organizations
    • New reward and selection practices
    • Organization learning
  156. Traditional Change Methods
    • Management initiated & controlled
    • Problem focused
    • Experts analyze and design solutions
    • Doers implement solutions
    • Rolled out as packaged change program
    • Change is discrete event
  157. Problems with Traditional Change Methods
    • Conflict between experts & doers
    • Lack of employee buy-in
    • Too rigid, not adaptive
    • Limited learning
    • May solve specific problems, but doesn't improve organization's capacity to improve itself
  158. Managing Strategic Change
    • Felt need: This initiating situation opens the possibility for change. Done by leaders but opens up to include others
    • Vision: Once need is felt, it will lead to an idea to resolve it
    • Action Learning Process: Follow vision. This entire process is on going
  159. Self-Design Strateggy
    • Involves Multiple Stakeholders: not easy since there is more than one individual involved
    • Innovation on Site: People within the organization are involved in the change
    • Learning by doing
    • Continuous Change, Improvement, and Learning: Change is ongoing and doesn't stop. This is different from Lewin's Three-Step Model, where change ceases after it is refrozen
    • Part of normal operations: always striving to be more productive, effective and efficient
  160. Action Learning Cycle
    • Taking Action to Implement Change: collect information - Action Research Stage
    • Collecting Pertinent Information: In regards to rewards, system productivity and motivation
    • Diagnosing Progress
    • Planning to Modify Change and How it is Implemented
    • This cycle is ongoing and party of normal operations. Employee involvement will increase the changes of the change being successful
  161. The Action Learning Cycle Over
    • Change will become the norm rather than stability
    • This ongoing change towards organizational objectives must be built into the behaviors of the company, including managers and employees
    • This participative process (includes employees) will strive to continually improve performance over time. The top-down approach to change will be detrimental as there is minimal involvement
  162. Organization Design Components
    • Structure
    • Information & Control Systems
    • Human Resource Systems
    • Technology & Work Design Systems
  163. The High Performing Organization
    • Ideal Organizational
    • Organizaitonal Structure: flat & lean
    • Work Design: Self-managed teams. Make their own decisions
    • Information Systems: Open & distributed. They must be available and shared (transparency)
    • Leadership: Visionary. Must be able to see things in a new way and must also be able to move forward on those ideas
    • Decision Making: Employee Involvement. Allowing them to be involved in the decision making
    • Training & Development: Continuous
    • Selection Processes: Culture driven and based on fit
    • Rewards: Performance & skill
    • Culture: Strong & egalitarian (Equal treatment and respect of all members (contrary to hierarchies)
    • Workforce Accomodations: The accommodation available for employees must be plentiful
  164. Conflict
    A process that begins when one party believes that another has negatively affected, something that the first cares about.
  165. A wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations
    • 1. Incompatibility of goals
    • 2. Differences over interpretations of facts
    • 3. Disagreements based on behavioral expectations
  166. Transitions in Conflict Thought
    • 1. Traditional Views: dominant in 1930's and 1940's, it basically said that conflict is bad and should be avoided
    • 2. Human Relations Views: dominant in 1970's and it stated that conflict was a natural occurrence and was inevitable. Conflict should be accepted
    • 3. Integrationist Views: Whether conflict is positive depends on the type of conflict and how that conflict is dealt with
  167. Interactionist Conflict
    • Functional Conflict: supports the goals of the group and improves its performance
    • Dysfunctional Conflict: hinders group performance
  168. Type of Interactionist Conflict
    • Task Conflict: Conflict over content and goals of the work. Low-to-moderate levels of this type are functional
    • Relationship Conflict: Conflict based on interpersonal relationships. Almost always dysfunctional 
    • Process Conflict: Conflict over how work gets done. Low levels of this type are functional
  169. Conflict Process
    • Stage 1: Potential opposition or incompatibility
    • Stage 2: Cognition and personalization
    • Stage 3: Intentions
    • Stage 4: Behavior
    • Stage 5: Outcomes
  170. Stage 5: Outcomes
    • Increased group performance (functional conflict)
    • Decreased group performance (dysfunctional conflict)
  171. Stage 4: Behavior
    • Overt Conflict
    • Party's behavior
    • Other's reaction
    • Annihilatory Conflict: Overt efforts to destroy the other party
    • No Conflict: minor disagreements or no conflict at all
  172. Stage 3: Intentions
    • Conflict-handling intentions - Assertiveness (own interest) & Cooperativeness (others and yours)
    • Competing: High A; Low C
    • Collaborating: High A; High C
    • Compromising: Low A; High C
    • Avoiding: Low A; Low C
    • Accommodating: In between
  173. Stage 2: Cognition and Personalization
    • Perceived Conflict (Cognition)
    • Felt Conflict (Personalization)
  174. Stage 1: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility
    • The conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise must be present
    • Communication
    • Structure
    • Personal Variables
  175. Negotiation (Bargaining)
    A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them
  176. Bargaining Strategies
  177. Distributive Bargaining
    • If I win, then you lose. This is motivation.
    • There are fixed amount of resources to be divided
    • Interests of the parties are opposed
    • The relationship of the parties is short term
  178. Integrative Bargaining
    • If I win, you win. This is the motivation
    • There are a variable amount of resources to be divided
    • The relationship between the parties is long term
  179. Negotiation Process
    • Preparation and planning
    • Definition of ground rules
    • Clarification and justification
    • Bargaining and problem solving
    • Closure and implementation
  180. Negotiation Process
    • BATNA
    • The Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement
    • The lowest acceptable value (outcome) to an individual for a negotiated agreement
  181. Conflict Resolution Techniques
    • Problem solving
    • Superordinate goals
    • Expansion of resources
    • Avoidance
    • Smoothing
    • Compromise
    • Authoritative command
    • Altering the human variable
    • Altering the structural variables
    • Communication
    • Bringing in outsiders
    • Restructuring the organization
    • Appointing a devil's advocate
  182. Outcomes of Functional Conflict
    • Increased group performance
    • Improved quality of decisions
    • Stimulation of creativity and innovation
    • Encouragement of interest and curiosity
    • Provision of a medium for problem-solving
    • Creation of an environment for self-evaluation and change
  183. Outcomes of Dysfunctional Conflict
    • Development of discontent
    • Reduced group effectiveness
    • Retarded communication
    • Reduced group cohesiveness
    • Infighting among group members overcomes group goals