mus 351A final

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mus 351A final
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  1. The concept of the mode as a form of expression or exemplification: literary, musical,
    and philosophical--Name the modes throughout the disciplines.
    • Modus (pl. modi): a way or manner of expression or movement; according to Plato, a melos
    • (song) was expressed through the movement, melody, and tonal material (modi)
  2. Cantus-
    • Cantus--Liturgical Latin texts, set to music in recitation, with melody used for more
    • significant prayers and processions
  3. The Mass, its divisions and the parts of the Ordinary
    Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
  4. Educational system of the Greeks
    • The liberal arts consisted of seven disciplines that were divided into the three verbal arts known
    • as the Trivium: Grammar, Rhetoric, and Dialectic.

    The Quadrivium included the following: Arithmetic, Astronomy, Geometry, and Music.
  5. The Canticle Hours (The Divine Office)
    • Matins (at sunrise)
    • Prime (during the first hour of daylight)
    • Terce (at the third hour)
    • Sext (at the sixth hour)
    • None (at the ninth hour)
    • Vespers (at the end of the day)
  6. Organum: Organi consisted of a liturgical cantus, which formed the tenor or cantus
    firmus
    • organum purum (pure organum), which involve a sustained tenor (Lt. tenere, to hold), which
    • supports a rather free-flowing upper voice

    • Parallel Organum—all voices travel, while preserving the same intervals throughout (4th, 5th, and
    • octave)

    • Medieval discant: a style of music, in which both voices travel at approximately the same rate
    • and are written with clearly-defined rhythms
  7. Conductus:
    • sung as processional pieces and at gatherings and celebrations; not liturgical;
    • frequently as musical accompaniments to the movements of characters in liturgical dramas; one
    • to four voices; many are topological or didactic in nature; many were sung during the Christmas
    • season and have a refrain, similar to a Christmas carol; the style is discant—all voices travel at
    • the same tempo and create consonances on the strong beats; the texts are Latin poems arranged in
    • successive stanzas
  8. Motet
    • (Fr. Mot, word) Voices proclaim a different text—multi-textual and frequently multi-
    • lingual; new words comment or exemplify the tenor, similar to the theological “commentary”
    • practices by Medieval scholars on religious and philosophical texts
  9. three kinds of motets:
    • Two-voiced motet; basic type of the thirteenth century, with a tenor and texted motetus (upper
    • voice)

    • Conductus motet; three-voiced piece, in which the motetus and triplum phrase together, so that
    • they can sing the same text and the same time, in the manner of all the voices of a conductus

    • Double motet; a polytextual three-voiced motet, in which the motetus and the triplum have
    • different texts, many are polylingual (sacred & secular)
  10. Ars Nova and Isorhythm: The Talea and the Color
    The abstractly conceived pitch-succession was called the color

    • The abstractly conceived rhythmic pattern was called the talea. (This word, which literally means
    • “measuring rod” in Latin, Oxford University Press

    Composers: Guillaume Machaut (Sacred Music); Philippe de Vitry (Sacred Music and Motets):

    Le Roman de Fauvel (ca. 1314)
  11. canon
    Rondellus (round): texts usually hymns; canon with phrases of the same length
  12. Rota:
    • canon at the unison; phrases of melody extend over two units
    • Considered to be English in origin
    • Two lower voices (the pes)
    • Main melody in one voice, then two, then four

    Resembles major mode with raised 7th
  13. Cantus firmus Mass
    • all movements are based on the same sacred or secular melody, usually in
    • the tenor
  14. Plainsong Mass
    each movement uses the melody from the same part of a Gregorian chant
  15. Paraphrase:
    • Musical paraphrase results when the composer borrows the melodic or harmonic material from a
    • pre-existing work and sets it differently, perhaps rhythmically, or develops or embellishes the
    • borrowed material; this technique was common as a basis of polyphonic compositions, such as
    • the Mass or motet.
  16. Parody (Mass)
    music material is borrowed from pre-existing sacred or secular compositions
  17. Newly composed (freely composed)
    musical material is not borrowed or paraphrased
  18. Mensuration canon
    • two voices perform the same music at different rates of speed; also called
    • “prolation”. In a mensuration canon the ratio between the two voices might be simple
    • augmentation, simple diminution, or some other ratio.
  19. Imitation
    • used prior to Renaissance, but used as a structural factor; occurs when a musical
    • gesture is repeated in a somewhat different form, but still retains the original character (exact
    • imitation remains a musical repetition)
  20. fauxbourdon
    • in the Continental fauxbourdon the tenor chant voice is in the treble, with the two fauxbourdon
    • voices appearing a fourth and sixth below—there may be occasional octaves/unisons
  21. faburden
    • adds two voices to the chant tenor, which appears in the middle and is
    • referred to as the “meane” voice—forming 6/3 chord throughout, opening and closing with 5/3
    • chords—there may be occasional octaves/unisons
  22. carol
    • The carol was a musical-literary song genre that reflected dance songs of the period in form and
    • content; may be a dance composition or movement

    • Form: Burden/Strophe/Burden, etc.
    • (Burdens were usually couplets)
    • The carol was appropriated by the Catholic Church in England as music used in processions
    • during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
    • Carols are frequently responsorial in pattern; that of a leader and group
    • Carols were used for feast days and were quoted in the form of traditional chants, which
    • functioned as cantus firmi
    • Carols are regularly written in score form and exhibit the stylistic traits of conducti
  23. The "Palestrina Style"
    • the smooth style of 16th century polyphony, derived and codified by
    • Johann Joseph Fux (1660-1741) from a careful study of his works - is the style usually taught as
    • "Renaissance polyphony" in college counterpoint classes, although in a modified form, as J.J. Fux
    • made a number of stylistic errors which have been corrected by later authors (notably Knud
    • Jeppesen and Morris). As codified by J.J. Fux, it follows the rules of what he defined as "species
    • counterpoint." Palestrina established and followed these strict guidelines:

    • - The flow of music is dynamic, not rigid or static.
    • - Melody should contain few leaps between notes.
    • - If a leap occurs, it must be small and immediately countered by opposite stepwise motion.

    • - Dissonances are either passing note or off the beat. If it is on the beat, it is immediately
    • resolved.
  24. Terms Originating at the Sistine Chapel and in the Music of Palestrina
    • Most polyphony in the Roman Catholic Church was unaccompanied by instruments—a cappella
    • Sistina;

    • a cappella
    • A motive, which appears in each voice—point of imitation
    • Each voice consists of the same rhythmic motive, with the melodic motives differing—rhythmic
    • imitation
    • Parody technique or emulation technique—composer borrows, not only the pre-existing melody,
    • but an entire polyphonic complex
    • Prima pratica (first practice) or stile antico—conservative style of composition used in traditional
    • church music, in contrast to the freer writing found in sixteenth-century madrigals
  25. English Madrigal:
    • Madrigals have at least four musical sections, are based on longer poems, and
    • are either through-composed or repeat their final musical section; Transaplina Treatise--
    • dissemination.
  26. The Italian Madrigal and its Development
    Music History Final Essay

    Trecento Madrigalstrophic song for 2-3 voicestext would be divided into 3 sections (2strophes or terzetti, 1 strophe or ritornello)terzetti sections were set to the same musicritornello was unique music often in a new meterexample: Jacopo da bologna “on a poem of Petrarch”

    Frottola late 15th early 16th century secular song 3-4 voicesgenerally homophonicmelody in the treblelower voices could be sung or played on an instrumentclosed refrain forms aab or aabbaexample: Josquin des Prez “El Grillo” These were important because the madrigal developed from these playful beginnings. The emergence of the frottola altered compositional methods and placed Italy at the forefront of musical activity

    16th Century Madrigal

    Early Madrigalpoetic, free-form verse by the humanists (bembo and his followers)homophonic but with considerable imitation its quiet and restrainedtended to follow diatonic tonal patterns

    Classic Madrigal4-6 voices (usually 5)style is genuinely polyphonic and imitativeBecomes much denser in texturetext expression is very importantmuch more seriousPalestrina and Gabrielle belonged to this era

    classical madrigal of Palestrinawrote 140 madrigalshis early madrigals featured motet stylestatic rhythmsformal styleplentiful homophonyhis later madrigals featuredmelodic fluidity in contrapuntal writingnobler emotionsjoy, grief, spiritual thoughts or the beauty of naturetendency towards monodytreble emphasis while the other parts form accompaniment (homophony)lower parts have a less prominent charactermelodic style echoed folk songs of the hills surrounding Palestrina, Italywrote a huge collection of pieces entitled the song of solomoncollection of motets ment for performance for the occasional service of the churchhas a singular design, like a story with both coherence and climaxstyle is a mixture of motet and madrigalvery intricateextremes of emotions (very light and very dramatic)extreme climaxes

    Late Madrigaldevelopment leads to highly elaborate musicexperimental tendencies like: chromaticism, coloristic effects, word painting, declamatory sections, and vocal effects begin to appearMonteverdi and Marenzio belonged to this era

    Monteverdi was also a large composer of madrigalswrote many books of madrigals ( 9 books total)he tends to stray from the traditional limits of the genre he developed the stile concertatoit uses alternation between combinations of instruments (contrasts in texture and antiphony)This concerto would later help to create the baroque concerto grossowas one of the main composers of the second practicestyle particularly concerned with perfection of settingharmony is ruled by the words

    Madrigal Compositional DevicesWord PaintingMusical illustration of the meaning of the words in a vocal textAugenmusik (eye music) refers to visual illustration of the meaning of words for the enjoyment of the performers Caesuraa pause in a line of verse dictated by a sense or natural speech rhythm rather than by metricsenjambmentthe continuation of a syntactic unit from one line or couplet of a poem to the next with no pause

    Important writer (Batista Guarini)wrote the poem Il Pastor Fidowas set by hundreds of composersit was so popular because it captured the spirit of the agepeople were world weary and cynical of the italian courtsthey wanted a utopian world of unspoiled wildernessit remained a scandalous success and was set to music hundreds of timesThis production became the a precursor to operaone version was eventually staged and choreographed productions occurred in many italian citiesit combined drama music dance and spectaclelasted four hours and required a small army of workersthis led to what we now know as opera
  27. Florentine Camerata-
    • -Deciphered Greek musical notation and
    • examined the character of ancient Greek
    • poetry and music 
    • -Revival of the Greek tragedy and led to the
    • development of the stile recitative, i.e. opera
    • -Sought to examine and guide the efforts is the arts
    • -Vincenzo Galilei’s treatises on counterpoint and
    • dissonance laid the platform for the seconda pratica 

    lecture 17
  28. Trecento Madrigal
    Trecento Madrigalstrophic song for 2-3 voicestext would be divided into 3 sections (2strophes or terzetti, 1 strophe or ritornello)terzetti sections were set to the same musicritornello was unique music often in a new meterexample: Jacopo da bologna “on a poem of Petrarch”
  29. Frottola
    Frottola late 15th early 16th century secular song 3-4 voicesgenerally homophonicmelody in the treblelower voices could be sung or played on an instrumentclosed refrain forms aab or aabbaexample: Josquin des Prez “El Grillo” These were important because the madrigal developed from these playful beginnings. The emergence of the frottola altered compositional methods and placed Italy at the forefront of musical activity
  30. early 16th century madrigal
    Early Madrigalpoetic, free-form verse by the humanists (bembo and his followers)homophonic but with considerable imitation its quiet and restrainedtended to follow diatonic tonal patterns
  31. 16th century classic madrigal
    Classic Madrigal4-6 voices (usually 5)style is genuinely polyphonic and imitativeBecomes much denser in texturetext expression is very importantmuch more seriousPalestrina and Gabrielle belonged to this era
  32. classical madrigal of Palestrina
    wrote 140 madrigalshis early madrigals featured motet stylestatic rhythmsformal styleplentiful homophonyhis later madrigals featuredmelodic fluidity in contrapuntal writingnobler emotionsjoy, grief, spiritual thoughts or the beauty of naturetendency towards monodytreble emphasis while the other parts form accompaniment (homophony)lower parts have a less prominent charactermelodic style echoed folk songs of the hills surrounding Palestrina, Italywrote a huge collection of pieces entitled the song of solomoncollection of motets ment for performance for the occasional service of the churchhas a singular design, like a story with both coherence and climaxstyle is a mixture of motet and madrigalvery intricateextremes of emotions (very light and very dramatic)extreme climaxes
  33. Late Madrigal
    Late Madrigaldevelopment leads to highly elaborate musicexperimental tendencies like: chromaticism, coloristic effects, word painting, declamatory sections, and vocal effects begin to appearMonteverdi and Marenzio belonged to this era
  34. Monteverdi
    Monteverdi was also a large composer of madrigalswrote many books of madrigals ( 9 books total)he tends to stray from the traditional limits of the genre he developed the stile concertatoit uses alternation between combinations of instruments (contrasts in texture and antiphony)This concerto would later help to create the baroque concerto grossowas one of the main composers of the second practicestyle particularly concerned with perfection of settingharmony is ruled by the words
  35. Madrigal Compositional Devices
    Word PaintingMusical illustration of the meaning of the words in a vocal text

    Augenmusik (eye music) refers to visual illustration of the meaning of words for the enjoyment of the performers 

    Caesuraa pause in a line of verse dictated by a sense or natural speech rhythm rather than by metrics

    enjambmentthe continuation of a syntactic unit from one line or couplet of a poem to the next with no pause
  36. important composer
    Important writer (Batista Guarini)wrote the poem Il Pastor Fidowas set by hundreds of composersit was so popular because it captured the spirit of the agepeople were world weary and cynical of the italian courtsthey wanted a utopian world of unspoiled wildernessit remained a scandalous success and was set to music hundreds of timesThis production became the a precursor to operaone version was eventually staged and choreographed productions occurred in many italian citiesit combined drama music dance and spectaclelasted four hours and required a small army of workersthis led to what we now know as opera

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