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is an individual's characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling.
there are 4 main approaches of personality that psychologist use
Minnesota Multiphasic personality inventory - a well researched , clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems.
- contains 500 descriptive statements to which the participant answers as true, false, or cannot say.
- answers get scored on 10 sub-scales describing some aspect of personality. measures for depression hypochondria, anxiety, paranoia, unconventional ideas and bizarre thoughts and beliefs. also measure general personality characteristics, such as degree of masculine and feminine gender role.
Rorschach inkblot test
a projective self disclosing personality test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent's inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure.
Self Reporting vs projective techniques
- Self reporting: a series of answers to questionnaire that asks people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements or adjectives accurately describe their own behavior or mental state.
- self disclosing... weakness: self biased, honesty.
- Example: taking a MMPI descriptive test
- Projective techniques: a standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individual's personality
- therapist is interrupting your answers. weakness - open to interpretation
- Example: ink blot test
approaches to personality and basic assumptions, and how it develops
Trait: a relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way.Ex- someone who keeps their clothes neat, schedule clear, and has a daily planner with important dates would have a trait of orderly
Psycho-dynamic: an approach that regards personality as formed by needs, striving, and desires,largely operating outside of awareness- motives that can also produce emotional disorders.
Humanistic: people are basically good, unless something gets into the way. peoples personality will develop as it should unless there is a block. and differences arise from the various ways that the environment facilitates or blocks attempts to satisfy psychological needs.
Social cognitive: views personality in terms of how the person thinks about the situations encountered in daily lives and behaves in response to them...
how you see yourself across many situations. interpretation of behaviors/interactions gives you an idea of who you are.
5 dimensions of the big 5 factor model of personality
- O = openness to experiences- imaginative, variety, independent
- C = Conscientiousness - organized, careful, and self-disciplined
- E = extroversion (or introversion) - social, fun-loving, affectionate
- A = Agreeableness - softhearted, trusting, helpful. willingness to be flexible and compromise
- N = neuroticism - worried, insecure, self-pitying. amount of time thinking and worrying about little things.
4 dimensions evaluated in the myers briggs type indicator (MBTI)
- Myers briggs Type indicator - trait theory test. similar to big 5 factor. listed as either one end or other end of spectrum on four (4) dimensions
- The four (4) dimensions are
- Extroversion/Introversion (E or I)
- Sensing/Intuition (S or N)
- Thinking/Feeling (T or F)
- Judging/Perception (J or P)
Trait theories of personality criticism
- 1) trait theories are a poor predictor of behavior. while someone may score high in one trait, they might not always behave that way in every situation
- 2) they do not explain or address how or why an individual trait develops or emerges
Freudian concepts of:
- Ego: The component of personality, developed through contact with the external world, that enables us to deal with life's practical demands.
- is influenced by ID and Superego. mainly conscious and slightly unconscious - Reality, what you actually do.
- ID: The part of the mind containing the drives present at birth; it is the source of our bodily needs, wants, desires, and impulses, particularly our sexual and aggressive drives.
- is completely unconscious, - deals with instinct/ impulses,
- Superego: the mental system that reflects the internalization of cultural rules, mainly learned as parents exercise their authority.
- is Mainly unconscious, and slightly conscious - deals with morality and conscience
- Conscious: outter thoughts.
- Unconscious: inner thoughts, desires and feelings
Repression: a defense mechanism in which the ego deals with internal conflict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature behavior or earlier stage of development.
Rationalization: A defense mechanism that involves supplying a reasonable-sounding explanation for unacceptable feelings.
Denial: the action of declaring something to be untrue
Reaction formation: a defense mechanism that involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of their opposite.
Regression: a defense mechanism in which the ego deals with internal conflict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature behavior or earlier stage of development.
psychosexual fixation (5 stages)
Distinct early life stages through which personality is formed as children experience sexual pleasures from specific body areas and caregivers redirect or interfere with those pleasure
- 1) Oral stage: the 1st stage, in which experience centers on the pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth, sucking, and being fed. (first 18 months of life) -
- personality traits included - issues of fullness and emptyness... depression, lack of trust, envy, and demandingness.
- 2) Anal stage: 2nd stage, which is dominated by the pleasures and frustrations associated with the anus, retention and expulsion of feces and urine, and toilet training. (between 2 and 3 yrs)
- "anal people" have develop a rigid personality and remain preoccupied with issues of control their emotions, of themselves and others... preoccupied with their possessions, money, issues of submission and rebellion, and concerns about cleanliness versus messiness.
- 3) Phallic stage: during which experience is dominated by the pleasure, conflict, and frustration associated with phallic-genital region as well as coping with powerful ingenuous feelings of love, hate, jealousy, and conflict
- Oedipus conflict occurs here, and ends with assimilation
- 4) latency stage: during which the primary focus is on further development of intellectual , creative, interpersonal, and athletic skills.
- 5) Genital stage: is the time for the coming together of the mature adult personality with a capacity to love, work, and relate to others in a mutually satisfying and reciprocal manner.
is the purification and purgation of emotions—especially pity and fear, or any extreme change in emotion that results in renewal and restoration
Oedipus complex: a developmental experience in which a child's conflicting feelings towards the opposite-sex parent are (usually) resolved by identifying with the same=sex parent.
people stuck in the phallic stage and unable to resolve the Oedipus conflict are preoccupied with issues of seduction, jealousy, competition, power, and authority
locus of control:
- is the tendency to perceive the control of rewards as internal to the self or external in the environment.
- Internalizing: taking the blame yourself, saying you have a say or control of a situation. EX: I got a B, because i didn't study as hard as i should have.
externalizing: blaming others or the environment for actions or events that impact your life. Ex: the teacher gave me a bad grade.
person situation controversy
the question of whether behavior is caused more by personality or by situational factors.
social learning theory:
- Reciprocal determinism: a model composed of three factors that influence behavior: the environment, the individual, and the behavior itself.
- Essentially, an individual's behavior influences and is influenced by both the social world and personal characteristics.
ex:Let's imagine that Anna is a shy student who usually keeps to herself (the personal/cognitive component). She enters a room on the first day of class to find that all of the other students are already present (the environment). In most cases, she would just quietly slip into a seat at the back of the class in order to avoid becoming the center of attention (the behavioral component). In this instance, another student at the front of the room boisterously greets Anna and invites her to sit down in an adjacent seat. In this instance, the environment has introduced a new reinforcing stimuli (the friendly student) that has led to a change in Anna's normal routine. As a result, her behavior has changed.
a mental state in which an organism forced to endure aversive stimuli, or stimuli that are painful or otherwise unpleasant, becomes unable or unwilling to avoid subsequent encounters with those stimuli, even if they are escapable, presumably because it has learned that it cannot control the situation... leads to depression
dogs that showed learned helplessness. after being unable to control being shocked. and did not try to escape being shocked, even once they were able to
Kelly's concept of personal constructs
- Personal constructs: Dimensions people use in making sense of their experiences.
- it explains different responses to situations with the idea that people see things in different ways....
- ex: list 3 people and state a way in which two of them were similar to each other and different from the third... continue doing this with the people in your life to produce a list of the dimensions used to classify friends and family.