hist vocab 2

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bree
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hist vocab 2
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2010-07-20 10:32:11
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  1. Absolutism
    France and Prussia, 1600's, a system of government in which the ruler claimed sole and uncontestable power, idea of divine right,

    "monarchy on top"
  2. Constitutionalism
    Holland, 1600's, a system in which a ruler had to share power with parliments made up of elected representatives, applies a balance of power btw government and subjects.
  3. Cardinal Richelieu
    France, 1600's, was louis XIII right hand man, he broke the power of the nobles, sig: because his decisions made france strong and doubled the income of the economy.
  4. Louis XIV
    France, 1600's, he was the king of France (absolutism), he is significant because he took complete control and never called a parliment meeting, no more religious freedoms.

    "one king, one land, one faith"
  5. Frederick William I
    Prussia, 1600's, was the abosolute leader of prussia (absolutism), sig: he made a militiristic absolute goverment, and made the military the nobles.
  6. William III of Orange
    Holland, 1600's, son of william the silent, he was the statholder of holland (constitutionalism), sig: was able to keep louis xiv out of when they tried to invade.
  7. statholder
    elected ruler, holland, ex: william III of orange
  8. James I
    England, 1600's, king of England, sig: he supplemented his income by ways not authorized by parliment, gets rid of parliment, puritans dislike him cus they make up most of parliment, he made his own version of the bible (king james)
  9. Charles I
    England, 1600's, king of england, need money cus of war with france asks parliment but they only give him a little bit so he gets forced loans from from rich ppl, he dismisses parliment, sig: cus his actions led to the civil war.
  10. English Civil War
    England, 1600's, Cavaliers( support the king) vs. roundheads (support parliment)
  11. Oliver Cromwell
    England, 1600's, led the roundhead army and froced parliment to end the monarchy and made a republich, he wanted total religious freedom, sig: but he got tired of parliment and dismissed it and became the LORD PROTECTOR (not king)
  12. Glorious Revolution
    England, late 1600's, James II is king and he baptized his son which led to the revolt by the protestants, sig: cus parliment then invited William of Orange to invade england and become the new king of england and he agreed to the english bill of rights.
  13. English Bill of Rights
    england, after the glorious revolution, bill of rights made by parliment and william of orange had to agree inorder to be king. sig: cus it limited the kings power.
  14. Deism
    Europe, during the enlightenment, A comprimised faith, universal religion that everyone can belong to. sig: cus it was a religion idea based on reason.
  15. Laisses-faire
    Europe, during the enlightenment, argued that gov. should reject mercantalism and should stay out of economic sphere. sig: still alive today.
  16. Catherine the Great
    Russia, 1700's, the queen, she wanted to transform russia to be a model, she was a despot ( stron monarch who implements law/ principle to to toward enligtenment ideas. sig: opened schools, published elightenment books.
  17. Louis XVI
    France, 1700's, king of france, wanted the nobels to give up tax exemption, sig: cus it led to the estates general making a constitutional monarchy but he didnt want to accept it which leads to the french revolution.
  18. Estates General
    French parliment with leaders of each estate.
  19. Declaration of Rights of man and the citizen
    France, late 1700's, all men are born equal, lots of enlightenment influence, similar to the declaration of independence.
  20. Commitee of public safety
    France, during the french revolution, they set up 12 guys to protect france from enemies foreign and domestic, sig: they abolished slavery in french colonies, and rejected organized religion.
  21. Maximilen Robespierre
    France, during french revolution, he took over teh commitee of public safety, sig: led to the reign of terror, he was beheaded.
  22. The Directory
    France, late 1700's, 5 men running the country, sig: led to new constitution, and Napoleon bonaprtes as a ruler.
  23. Napoleon Bonaparte
    France, 1800's, became the leader of teh consulate, controlled inflation, abolished a central buracracy, didnt like free spech/press, arrested traders, he became the Emperor of france sig: led to a military dictatorship , conquered sourounding nations to make an empire.
  24. Code Napoleon
    france, 1800's, 1st unifro code of law,
  25. Continental System
    France, during napoleons rule, inorder to hurt england all nations under his controll were unable to do business with england, sig: it led to massive unemmployment and bourgousie began to turn on napoleon.
  26. Congress of Vienna
    Britain, Austria, Prussia, 1800's, reconstructed europes boundries, france was not punished for napoleon,
  27. John Locke
    France, 1600's, was a puritan, believed that governement should protect life, liberty, and property. sig: he influenced many philosophers, and new enlightenment ideas.
  28. Social contract
    its an agreement btw the ppl and their government where the gov gurantees life, liberty and property in exchange for some freedoms.
  29. Nicholas Copernicus
    Poland, during the scientific revolution, he was a polish monk, sig: cus he discovered that the planets orbit the sun, not the earth.
  30. Johannes Kepler
    Germany, during the scientific revolution, he was a mathmatician, and astronomer, sig: he revised copernicus' idea, he said: the orbits were not circular they were oval, and the speed around the sun was dependent on the distance from the sun, closer = faster.
  31. Francis Bacon
    England, during the scientific revolution, he was a lawyer and a statesmen, Sig: he challenged scholars to observe reality instead of opening old books, used the empirical method.
  32. Rene Descartes
    French philosopher, during the scientific revolution, his ideas were based on math, used deductive reasoning,

    I think.. therefore I am, sig: he is said to be the father of modern philosophy, and his ideas are studied closely today.
  33. Galileo Galilei
    Italy, during scientific revolution, he was a physicist, astronomer, philosopher, he was a key figure in the scientific revolution, he is sig: he discovered the law of acceleration/ motion, invented the pendulum, improved the telescope
  34. Isaac Newton
    England, during the scientific revolution, he was a physicist, and theologian, sig: he invented calculus, and explained gravity thru math
  35. Bourgeoisie
    upper middle class, ppl began to get rich thru business, sig: it led to new class of people.
  36. Salons
    during enlightenment in paris, they are places ran by women, evening receptions to dissolve ideas
  37. Philosophes
    attended the salons, elightnement thinkers, during the enlightenment.

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