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2014-05-14 21:33:11
vet tech 247
vet tech 247
musculoskeletal disease, surgical techniques, bandaging in surgical nursing, vetc 247
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  1. modified robert jones bandage
    • less bulky
    • 1. white 1" bandage tape, stirrup distal 1/3 of leg and equal amt off of leg.  Tab ends
    • 2. wrap with cast padding distal to proximal to distal, overlap 50%. More padding will be loose
    • 3. (splint if using).  Wrap leg with conforming bandage (gauze) distal-proximal-distal, overlap 50%
    • 4. separate tape stirrups, turn around and tape up sides to prevent slipping
    • 5. leaving cast padding visible above and below, wrap vetwrap distal-proximal-distal, overlap 50%
  2. laceration
    • slice with clean edges, gaping or bleeding.  Look bigger than are.  
    • Caused by sharp objects like glass, metal and teeth, or surgical incisions
  3. abrasions
    • removal of varying amounts of epidermis and dermis
    • scrape.  Contaminated, rough edges, little bleeding, usually distal limbs
    • caused by friction, like HBC
  4. puncture
    • caused by bite wounds
    • "ice berg" effect, where most of the damage is underneath and you have to look for it.
  5. penetrating wound
    entry site with no exit.  Caused by sharp objects and bite wounds, frequently infected
  6. perforating wound
    • through and through, has exit wound.  
    • caused by gun shot, sticks, knives
  7. degloving wound
    • skin is torn away or dead tissue sloughs away from underlying tissue
    • caused by HBC or physiological slouging
  8. avulsion
    • skin is torn away from underlying structures and bone is exposed
    • caused by HBC, bite wound
  9. burn degrees
    • 1st: epidermis (erythema)
    • 2nd: epidermis and dermis (blister)
    • 3rd: full thickness, all layers
    • caused by fire, chemical burns or electrical burns
    • can see erythema, eschar (charring, necrotic)
  10. eschar
    charred flesh, necrotic
  11. clean wounds
    non-traumatic, created during surgical procedures (sterile conditions) and not involving body cavities: GI, oral, respiratory or genitourinary tract
  12. clean-contaminated wounds
    minimal contamination.  Surgical wounds of GI, respiratory, oral and genitourinary tract or basic laceration
  13. contaminated wounds
    traumatic wounds with foreign material present or surgical wounds with contamination, like GI contents.  Dirty-looking or perforated GI.
  14. dirty wounds
    infected wounds having purulent discharge, devitalized tissue and or foreign matter, or surgical wounds with perforation or fecal matter contamination
  15. 3 phases of wound healing
    • inflammatory (immediate)
    • proliferative (3-7 days post-injury)
    • remodeling (5-7+ days post-injury)
    • Overlapping process
  16. regeneration in wound healing
    replacing lost cells/tissue with new ones (only cells capable of mitosis can, like bone, liver and epithelium)
  17. repair in wound healing
    formation of a scar
  18. Inflammatory phase
    • first phase in wound healing
    • tissue injury causes immediate inflammatory and coagulation cascade, chemotaxis.  Hemorrhage cleans, causes useful cells to migrate to where they are needed
    • hemostasis within a few minutes, vasoconstriction, catecholamine release, aggregation of platelets and plug/extrinsic clotting cascade
    • inflammation after 5-10 mins, lasts as long as debris present.  Vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, migration of WBC, debridement, heat, redness, swelling and pain
  19. proliferation phase
    • phase 2 of wound healing, granulation tissue
    • fibroblasts migrate to wound, collagen is made and remodeled based on nutrition/perfusion
    • granulation tissue is resistant to local infection and provides blood supply for other closure techniques
    • contraction of wound/myofibroblasts can cause up to 30% of closure
  20. granulation tissue
    • loopy tissue (angiogenesis), no yellow/infection.
    • Good sign, can cut edges and close wound
  21. remodeling phase
    • phase 3 of wound healing
    • collagen reforms based on oxygen and nutrition
    • collagenolysis, regression of vascular elements
    • removes dead tissue, brings in new
  22. wound managment
    • assess whole patient for stability (ABCs)
    • history/analgesia/cleansing/outcome
    • anesthetics (lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivicaine)
    • analgesia (opioids, partial agonists)
    • skin prep, lavage, debridement, open vs closed
  23. debridement
    • removal of infected, contaminated tissue
    • can be surgical or non-surgical
  24. lavage
    • cleansing and converting a dirty wound to a clean wound
    • saline, LRS etc, 18-gauge needle and 60mL syringe for pressure
  25. skin prep for wound management
    • prevention and evaluation
    • fill wound with sterile lube (water-soluble) before clipping/cleaning to prevent recontamination
    • Clean vs dirty clippers
  26. Closed wound closure
    • primary closure, surgical.  
    • performed on clean and clean-contaminated wounds (no visible infection, no debris, enough tissue, healthy)
    • sutures or staples until healing (10-14days)
  27. drains
    • evacuate unwanted fluids from wound or body cavity and reduce dead space
    • passive (penrose) use gravity and capillary action
    • active (grenades) use external suction
  28. open wound closure (3 forms)
    • delayed primary: 2-5 day old wounds or with debris or infection, bandages and chemicals to clean for 3-5 days
    • secondary closure: contaminated/infectied wounds managed until granulation tissue forms (~5 days) then primary closure appose tissue
    • second intention: never close. Severly contaminated wounds, closure via granulation, epithelialization and contraction.  "scar in"
  29. purpose of bandaging
    • control hemorrhage
    • debridement of infected tissue or removal of foreign tissue
    • absorbs exudate and debris
    • prevents motion
    • protect from contamination/self trauma
    • reduce pain
  30. 3 layers of bandaging
    • primary: contact layer, sterile. adherent or non-adherent
    • secondary: middle layer, bulk.  Absorptive or supportive
    • tertiary: outer layer, color. evaporation, pressure, protection
  31. primary layer of bandage
    • sterile.  Serves to debride, occlusive seal, deliver meds
    • can be adherent or non-adherent
  32. adherent primary layer bandage
    • used in debridement stage of healing, in place for 3-7 days
    • dry to dry: infected or necrotic wounds with lots of exudate--already wet. Debrides when changed
    • wet to dry: infected or necrotic wounds with low exudate, dry already.  LRS or 0.9% NaCl
  33. non-adherent primary layer bandage
    • closed or partial thickness wounds once granulation is present, still absorbs exudate
    • occlusive: impermeable to air, healthy wounds that epithelialize.  Hydrocolloids(moist) or foam dressing (absorb)
    • semi-occlusive: permeable to air, maintains moist.  Paraffin gauze (increases contraction), perforated film dressing (telfa, allows epithelialization of granulating wounds)
  34. sugar paste
    • part of primary layer of bandaging
    • lowers pH of wounds, debrides dirty wounds and antibacterial.  NOT FOR GRANULATING
  35. Manuka honey
    • part of primary layer of bandaging
    • low pH, antibacterial, high OSMOTIC PRESSURE, pulls fluids from tissue, antioxidant, keeps moist
  36. maggots
    used on wounds for debridement in primary layer of bandaging
  37. vacuum assisted closure (VAC)
    • utilized after debridement on large open contaminated wounds (degloving, avulsions, abdominal/thoracic wounds)
    • closed subatmospheric pressure environment (negative pressure, protects tissue, continuous suction improves blood flow and formation of granulation tissue
  38. pressure bandage
    • use only in emergencies, no more than 1 hour
    • control bleeding, control edema.  
    • decreased blood supply can be bad
  39. robert jones bandage
    • very bulky, functions as a splint without splint material.  
    • lightweight, comfortable
    • stablizes injuries at or below elbow and stifle
  40. casting
    • rigid and molded into tubular structure to fit shape of area (usu limb)
    • molds to fit limb with bone or joint injury
    • distally from elbow or stifle
    • can cause cast sores if not applied properly
    • plaster (oldest, cheap, fast) or fiberglass (newer, lighter)
  41. splint and sling purpose
    • stabilize bone/joint injuries, soft tissue, fractures
    • OVER padding, never to skin
  42. conventional splint
    • typically aluminum or plastic, may not fit exactly.  Adjust padding to prevent slipping or sores
    • what we use, arc of hard material with foam inside
  43. schroeder-thomas splint
    • just rods around leg, not filled in
    • used to stabilize tibia/fibula fractures, radius/ulna fractures.  
    • made of aluminum rods and bandage material.
  44. spica splint
    • immobilizes entire front limb, extended
    • made of bandages and fiberglass
  45. velpeau sling
    stabilized shoulders/scapula or prevent weight bearing of forelimb in flexed position against thorax
  46. ehmer sling
    • holds luxated HIPS in place after closed reduction
    • limb flexed and internal rotation
  47. carpal sling
    • prevents weight-bearing of forelimb without immobilizing whole limb
    • Flexed carpus, <90 degrees
  48. natural suture material
    • may cause inflammatory response in tissue
    • varying absorption
    • gut or silk
  49. synthetic suture material
    • predictible absorption
    • minimal tissue reaction
    • monofilament, propylene, polypropylene
  50. most common mistake in suturing
    too tight
  51. absorbable suture material
    • for internal sutures.  Loss of strenght variable
    • disappear due to enzymatic degradation (natural-chromic surgical gut/catgut) or hydrolysis (synthetic-vicryl, monocryl, dexon, PDSII)
  52. cutting edged needles
    • two or more cutting edges, used for skin, fascia, ligaments, tendons and cartilage
    • tough tissue
  53. reverse-cutting edged needle
    outside edge cutting, away from wound
  54. taper edged needle
    fine point tip, used on intestines, blood vessels and less dense tissue (delicate)
  55. interrupted sutures
    • simple interrupted: time consuming, but failure of one does not cause failure of all
    • horizontal/vertical mattress: used in areas with tension, placement is quick
    • cruciate pattern: decrease tension
  56. continuous sutures
    • simple continuous: fast.  Used for linea alba or SQ tissue.  airtight and fluid tight apposition
    • ford interlocking: fast. each pass locked to avoid breakdown.  Increases distribution/decreases tension
  57. appositional
    tissues are close together (simple interrupted)
  58. everting
    tissue edges turn outward (continuous mattress)
  59. inverting
    tissue away from surgeon (cushing)
  60. subcutaneous suture function
    • eliminates dead space
    • provides less dead space on skin
    • placed as simple, continuous or interrupted
  61. subcuticular suture function
    • used in place of skin sutures to reduce scarring
    • use absorbable suture
  62. staples
    • quick and easy, but expensive.  
    • Only for top layer/skin
  63. tissue adhesive (cyanoacrylats)
    • set in <60s
    • good apposition, not strenght
    • cutaneous wounds and incisions
    • poor adherence, potential for infection
  64. seroma
    fluid under incision, "dead space"
  65. edema
    seen in large wounds and on distal limbs as a result of decreased lymph and venous drainage
  66. dehiscence
    breakdown of surgically closed wounds caused by poor technique or insufficient time for debridement of contaminated wounds leading to necrosis of tissue
  67. infection signs, time and most common (d/c)
    • 2-3 days
    • heat, redness, swelling, pain, fever, lethargy, anorexia
    • canine: staphylococcus, escherichia coli, clostridium
    • feline: pasteurella
  68. layers of bone
    • marrow cavity
    • endosteum
    • cortical bone
    • periosteum
    • either end has woven/cancellous bone
    • epiphyseal plate in growing
  69. simple fracture
    bone splits into two pieces
  70. comminuted fracture
    bone breaks into several pieces
  71. compound fracture
    bone breaks through skin
  72. greenstick fracture
    bone is cracked but periosteum remains intact, only on one side
  73. multiple fracture
    • more than two pieces/fragments
    • fractures don't connect (pieces are apart)
  74. joint mouse
    • fragment of bone disassociated from main bone itself
    • often within joint
    • causes pain, inflammation, arthritis
  75. closed fracture
    skin not broken
  76. open fracture
    skin broken
  77. stable fracture
    fragments interlock, pieces close together
  78. unstable fracture
    fragments don't interlock, pieces not close together
  79. cerclage wire
    • twist tie occasionally used to hold bone together
    • good for mandibular symphysis fracture
  80. spiral fracture
    • spirals around bone
    • from twisting, suspect abuse?
  81. oblique fracture
    at an angle
  82. pathologic fracture
    • bone already weak from cancer or other pathology.  Hard to fix, often amputate
    • osteosarcoma
  83. stress fracture
    very thin fracture from stress, often seen in working and racing dogs.
  84. osteosarcoma
    sarcoid tumor in bone.  Makes bone fragile.  Locally invasive, doesn't spread but gets huge.  Amputation
  85. transverse fracture
    fracture line perpendicular to bone (right angle)
  86. impacted fracture
    fragments collapsed/pushed together
  87. condylar fracture
    condyle fractures/cracks off
  88. avulsion
    • where there is a bone fragment/displacement at the insertion of a muscle/tendon/ligament.  Not necessarily fractured.  
    • Fracture or tear right where ligament attaches
  89. physeal fractures
    • fracture at/through growth plate
    • 5 types of physeal fractures, classified in SALTER-HARRIS CATEGORIES
  90. physical signs of fracture
    pain, swelling, loss of function, change of gait, crepitus
  91. sign of distal limb fracture
    won't put weight on
  92. sign of proximal limb fracture
    touch down but limp
  93. open reduction
    surgical or drilling to fix fracture
  94. closed reduction
    fixing a fracture without going in, just pull, wrap and rest.
  95. periosteal reaction
    the first stage of fracture healing
  96. callus
    the second stage of fracture healing.
  97. malformation
    a strutural defect that occurs WHILE the bone is growing/forming
  98. deformity
    abnormal structural alteration in a PREVIOUSLY NORMAL bone
  99. osteophyte
    • a small bony outgrowth, usually associated with inflammatory processes
    • bone spur, comes from chronic inflammation (arthritis)
  100. necrosis
    death of a population of cells or part of an organ, resulting from a disease process, causing irreversible damage
  101. legg-calve-perthes disease
    • abnormality in small, esp toy breeds of dog
    • aseptic necrosis of femoral head, possibly from interruption of the blood supply
    • appears before 12 months old
    • lame, chew/lick at hip, pain on manipulating, reluctant to rise from sitting
    • treated with FHO
  102. non-union fracture
    never actually healed together
  103. fibella
    distal caudal femur sesmoid bone
  104. infectious arthritis
    • inflammation of a joint
    • infectous: caused by infection, secondary to trauma, iatrogenic (synovial tap contamination)
    • can be serious, purulent or fibrinous (little chunks/flakes)
    • can be acute or chronic.  Chronic harder to treat
    • pain, swelling, heat, lameness
    • tx: antibiotics, antiinflammatories (often cancel each other out)
  105. panosteitis
    • an inflammatory condition of unknown origin, causing a patchy appearance to the bone.  Often in large-breed dogs, esp german shepherds.  Known for causing shifting-leg lameness
    • acute onset lameness, signs of pain, usually more than one leg
    • tx with anti-inflammatories and rest, can resolve alone
  106. FHO
    • femoral head osteotomy
    • take head of femur off
    • <2y, musculature developes to hold femur in position.  MUST do physical therapy
  107. noninfectious arthritis
    • inflammation of a joint
    • canine rheumatoid arthritis
    • non-erosive immune-mediated arthritis
  108. canine rheumatoid arthritis
    • severe pain and swelling, often see pannus (granulation tissue that forms in the joint), usually secondary to chronic inflammation.  Possibly autoimmune.  Seen in small dogs, rare.
    • signs like infectious but without the heat.  Treat with anti-inflammatories (cosequin, rimadyl, steroids)
  109. non-erosive immune-mediated arthritis
    • can be associated with fever (without infection) and other systemic signs
    • tx: anti-inflammatories, other immune suppressants
  110. spondylosis deformans
    • a disease where osteophytes form and grow toward each other through the disc space in the spine.
    • Associated with EXCESSIVE VITAMIN A IN CATS, present in many breeds
    • causes bridge between vertebrae
    • lameness, down in rear, painful on petting, neurological signs
    • tx: meds or surgery, DEPEND ON RADS. Need post-surgical rehab
  111. Osteochondrosis dessicans
    • unknown reasons, cartilage within the joint thickens and interferes with blood supply. Cartilage diees, growing bone just distal to it tries to make it fibrous, leaving a "pseudocyst", small area with no bone
    • pieces of cartilage can stick out into the joint, causing lameness
    • found in medium to large, rapidly growing dogs, 6-9 months old, particularly shoulder, elbow, stifle
    • pain, lameness, breed/physical diagnostics
    • tx is surgical
  112. hip dysplasia
    • pathological growth of hip, mostly large-breed dogs, rare in cats
    • can start intrauterine, neonatally or during juvenile growth
    • femoral head subluxates, resulting in secondary inflammation and degerative joint disease
    • also associated with too-rapid joint growth--nutrition
    • usually bilateral.  50% of femoral head should be covered by acetabulum
    • PennHip (compression, distraction, extended VD)
    • OFA (Orthopedic Foundation of America, extended VD anyway, age 2, prefer bucky, high mAs and low kVp
  113. signs of hip dysplasia
    • lame, may hop or be reluctant to crouch
    • narrow-based stance
    • hips may sway while patient walking
    • Ortelani's sign: adduct flexed hip joint while pushing, with finger on hip joint; if femoral head slips, is a good clue
  114. Ortelani's Sign
    adduct flexed hip joint while pushing, with finger on hip joint; if femoral head slips, is a good clue that hip dysplasia is present
  115. treatment for hip dysplasia
    • TPO - triple pelvic osteotomy
    • FHO - femoral head (and neck) osteotomy
    • THR - total hip replacement (cut off prox femur distal to neck, put plastic or metal shell into acetabulum, shaft into medullary canal
  116. patellar luxation
    • can be medial, lateral, congenital or traumatic
    • four grades
    • medial luxation (congenital) is associated with small/toy breeds (shallow trochlear grooves and/or tibial rotation). Traumatic often secondary to hip luxation
    • lateral luxation mostly in large breeds, often secondary to hip dysplasia
    • will crouch or sit with legs splayed to side
    • tx is surgical
  117. cranial cruciate ligament injury
    • common in dogs, rare in cats
    • can result from valgus (duck footed) or varus (pigeon-toed) deformity, patellar luxation or trauma
    • tibia is able to slide forward relative to the femur (drawer test)
    • patella is drawn proximally and/or cranially, fat pad displaces, gait is abnormal
    • exercise and weight control can help prevent CCL injury
    • tx: TPLO - tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (fixes problem, not ligament) or TTA (tibial tubercle advancement), or repair ligament
    • partial tear tx: may heal alone, cage-rest, PT, anti-inflammatories, DIET
  118. osteosarcoma
    • cancerous growth of osteocytes and osteoblasts
    • more dogs than cats, characteristic lytic lesions in bone
    • tx: amputation +/- radiation.  Radiograph opposite limb regulary
  119. fibrosarcoma
    • usually starts in soft tissue, invades into bone
    • doesn't usually metastasize but is VERY invasive
  120. hemangiosarcomas
    • tumors that include vascular reservoirs, mostly in soft tissue but can include bony tissue
    • tx: surgical excision with wide margins, +/- chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy
  121. FSV (feline sarcoma virus)
    • associated with growth of fibrosarcomas, may be linked to FeLV
    • increased in '90's to -00's, possibly due to aluminum adjuvents in vaccines.  Now use synthetic
  122. russian thumb forceps
    round tip, horseshoe serrated edge
  123. mayo stand
    thing we have in surgery, steel table with holder on one side, can go over surgery table
  124. prolapse
    protrude and collapse
  125. c-section
    • usually due to dytocia
    • midline laparotomy, exteriorize uterus, incise non-vascular dorsal or ventral midline, milk fetus to incision and remove, remove placenta, close
    • may need reversal for puppy
    • warm, dry and introduce puppy to dam upon recovery
  126. reasons for dystocia
    • Chihuahua, EBD
    • large neonate, nonviable puppy, breech (normal in half of feline births)
    • greater than 1 hour between puppies
    • pregnancy longer than 70 days (post-term neonate)
  127. placenta in parturition
    • extruded every puppy or two
    • should be expelled within a few hours, if not, suckling helps (oxytocin)
    • retained placenta rare in dogs, common in cattle
  128. puppy revival
    • clear airway
    • swab oral cavity
    • massage thorax and face with warm towel
    • external heart massage if neccessary
    • keep warm and dry
    • mask O2 if necessary, should breath within 1-2 minutes
    • glucose if no colostrum
  129. orchiectomy surgery notes
    • pluck rather than shave in cats, razor burn common
    • aseptic prep but no scrub
    • canine: milk testicle cranial before exteriorizing
    • prep cryptorchid like spay
  130. open orchiectomy
    ligate pampiniform plaxus and vas deferens/epididymis separately
  131. closed orchiectomy
    ligate whole bundle including tunic (pampiniform plexus, vas deferens/epididymis)
  132. causes and tx of prolapse
    • tenesmus, esp with parasites in puppies and kittens
    • vaginal: dystocia, hyperplastic conditions
    • rectal: enteritis, foreign body/urethral obstruction, prostatic hyperplasia
    • tx: manual reuction and retention sutures
  133. caslick procedure
    for vaginal prolapse, esp in cows and horses, sew closed dorsal labia
  134. aural hematoma
    • pinna fills with blood
    • many small incisions, express blood and debris out, suture within pinna so can't swell again.  Leave a slit to drain and prevent head-shaking
  135. dehorning
    • electrocautery up to 4 weeks
    • older needs knife or dehorning cup
    • goal to remove growth ring
    • post-op infection
  136. external fixator
    pins and rods inserted at specific angles and anchored outside body to fix a fracture.  Pressure and angle can be changed
  137. internal fixator
    intermedullary pin, plates, screws, cerclage wire placed inside body to fix fracture
  138. sx for patellar luxation or subluxation
    • anti-rotational sutures
    • trochleoplasty
    • tibial transposition
  139. cranial cruciate ligament sx
    • extra- or intra-articular stabilization
    • TPLO - tibial plateau leveling osteotomy
  140. tx for disc disease
    • affects everything caudal to injury
    • ventral slot sx - incision in ventral neck, remove disc from ventral side
    • removal of part of bone to releave pressure is laminectomy (hemi or bilateral)
  141. how birds have babies and what the group is called
    • birds are egg layers, hens lay one egg per day.
    • A group of eggs is called a clutch
  142. hatched chicks
    • altricial (naked, blind, dependent on parents)
    • Young chicks are fed by parents until weaning (5-6 weeks)
  143. caging for birds
    • as spacious as possible, minimum can spread out wings
    • rectangular or square most spacious
    • should be in cage with most family activity
  144. accessories for birds
    • toys that encourage foraging behaviors are highly recommended, birds spend > 50% of the day feeding and foraging
    • don't overcrowd with toys
    • toys for small birds can't be given to large birds
    • natural toys: pine cones, old phone book, cardboard boxes, vegetables, apple cores, clumps of grass sprayed with water, fresh-cut branches from pestacide-free fruit trees
  145. bird diet
    • whole natural food diet rotated daily to mimic natural feeding/foraging.  formulated diet plus fresh greens and vegetables, limited seeds.  Don't overfeed
    • florivores: plant-eaters
    • granivores: seed eaters. Budgies and cockatiels
    • frugivores: fruit-eaters
  146. You should take your bird __________ for ________
    • you should take your bird outside for sunshine and fresh air
    • sunshine provides UV light for calcium and Vitamin D metabolism. Use a bulb when colder
    • 20-30 minutes of sunshine a day recommended
  147. wing clipping for birds
    • goal is to prevent sustained flight (not make INCAPABLE of flight)
    • excessive wing clip can cause limb or wing fractures or lacerations of the keel
    • clip bilaterally (not only one side)
    • 10 primaries and 12+ secondaries. Clip top 7-10 primaries
  148. rabbit dentition
    • two pairs of upper incisors, 2nd pair behind first pair.  2nd pair called "peg teeth".
    • Teeth are open-rooted and grow continuously throughout life
  149. rabbit ovulation
    • rabbits are induced ovulators
    • Ovulation occurs approximately 12 hours post-coitus
  150. name for female and male rabbits
    • female rabbits are called does
    • male rabbits are called bucks
  151. rabbit feces
    rabbits have two types of feces.  Pellets are produced during the day and cecotrophs are passed during the night.  It is normal for rabbits to eat night stool.  It is a source of B vitamin and protein
  152. what rabbits need for proper development of bones and teeth
    • sunshine, which gives them vitamin D, which helps absorb calcium.  
    • 1/2-1 hour of sunshine per day
  153. rabbit diet
    • inappropriate diet is one of the most common causes of disease in pet rabbits
    • need >20% of fiber in diet
    • most pellets don't have enough fiber (for food/fur, not pets)
    • recommended diet is unlimited grass hay (timothy, Bermuda, oat grass) + 1 cup/1-2lbs of rabbit of fresh greens (kale, collard greens, parsley, dandelion greens, chicory, mustard greens, basil, endive, romaine lettuce and swiss chard)
    • high fiber pellets at 1/4 cup per 5 lbs
  154. Ferret males vs females size, names of neutered vs not, name of babies
    • males are larger than females
    • netuered males are called gibs
    • neutered females are called sprites
    • intact males are called hobs
    • intact females are called jills
    • babies are called kits
  155. ferret diet
    • strict carnivores.  High quality meat protein (30-35%) and fat (15-20%) in diet.
    • Low carbs and fiber
    • first three listed ingredients are meat products in kibble (ferret food)
    • canned food, fruit and veggies not recommended due to nutrient density
    • can use fatty acid supplement, raw egg yoke, meat fat, raw organ or muscle meats as treats
    • whole prey diets best
  156. Cage for ferrets
    cage or pen should be large enough for exercise and a den should be provided
  157. ferret restraint
    • grasp by nape of neck and suspend.  Will relax.  Nutri-cal can be given to encourage good behavior
    • only animal you can suspend
  158. guinea pig babies
  159. guinea pigs are __________ and prefer__
    guinea pigs are social animals and prefer contact with other guinea pigs
  160. guinea pig breathing
    • guinea pigs are obligate nasal breathers.
    • can't pant or cool off, can't breathe if they get a cold, easy to see mouth while anesthetized
  161. guinea pig vitamins
    guinea pigs need daily vitamin C, 10-30mg/kg, 50mg/kg during pregnancy, stress or illness
  162. hamster and mouse housing
    • hamsters and male mice should be housed singly
    • female mice, gerbils and all rats can be group-housed
  163. small rodent diet
    • seed based diets not okay.  Pelleted food or rodent blocks are the best (16+% protein, 5%fat)
    • states national research council standards for species
    • fruits and veggies not more than 10% total
  164. restraint of rats
    grasp around top of neck with thumb and forefinger around chest/thorax.  Can also grip at base of tail
  165. restraint of gerbils
    • grasp around top of neck with thumb and forefinger around chest/thorax.
    • DO NOT GRIP AT TAIL, skin can rip off, "fur slip".
  166. bearded dragon body temperature
    reptiles are ectothermic.  Depend on environmental temperatures to maintain their body temperatures
  167. bearded dragon diet
    • omnivores
    • DO NOT FEED LIGHTENING BUGS, toxic and lethal
    • younger prefer meats, older prefer plants.
    • Offer variety of proteins (crickets, wax worms, earthworms, mealworms, cockroaches, pinkie mice, super worms, whole mice are nutritious and less likely to cause impaction
    • dark leafy greens, escarole, parsley, dandelion greens, collard greens
    • can also offer squash, mango, cantaloupe, green beans
    • dust salad with calcium carbonate powder
    • dust insects with vitamin supplement
    • feed juveniles and babies BID
  168. Bearded dragon enclosure
    • temperature gradient, one end 90-100 (basking light), other end 80-85.  Never below 70 at night.  
    • UV light provided for calcium
    • 12-14 lights in summer, 10-12 hours winter.  
    • SUNLIGHT best, 1 hr twice a week
  169. snake diet
    carnivores, fed rats or mice
  170. restraint of snake
    • support body with one hand, support head with other
    • large snakes need 2-3 handlers
    • never let body hang--only one occipital condyle, could luxate vertebral column
  171. turtle shell
    shell of a turtle consists of an upper carapace and lower plastron
  172. blood collection from turtle
    • jugular vein, esp right.  
    • last resort, clip toenail, dorsal tail vein, subcarapacial vein (supra vertebral sinus)
  173. amphibian environment
    amphibians are dependant on environment, important to research type and mimic natural environment
  174. poor diets in amphibians
    lead to reproductive problems, deformities, illness and death