Abnormal Psychology Final
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Which eating disorder is not a condition found
in the DSM?
What is a controversial aspect of the diagnostic
criteria for anorexia nervosa?
Cindy is 5 ' 6" tall and weighs 92 pounds. She is very concerned about her weight.
However, at times she finds herself eating large amounts of food - several
boxes of cookies, gallons of ice cream, entire cakes - all in an evening.
Afterwards, she makes herself throw up. Cindy's most likely diagnosis is
How does the mindset of people with bulimia and people with anorexia differ?
People with anorexia are in denial; those with bulimia are feel shame and guilt
What has been identified as a risk factor for eating disorders in men?
What disorders are often comorbid with eating disorders?
Depression, OCD, Substance-Abuse disorders, personality disorders
Rates of eating disorders tend to be much lower in black women than in white women. However, one factor that can increase risk in black women is?
If they internalize the white middle-class values of thinness as well as if they have weak ethnic identities
What is the prognosis for anorexia nervosa?
Not good – about 3% die from complications and only very long-term recovery is possible
What neurotransmitter seems to be involved in both eating disorders and depression?
What do families of people with anorexia have in common?
Dysfunction and/or perfectionism
What is the relationship between sexual abuse and the development of an eating disorder?
Weak but positive
Research suggests that ________ provides the best immediate and long-term outcomes in the
treatment of bulimia nervosa?
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
There is a general agreement among researchers that personality is based on?
5 personality trait dimensions (5-factor model of personality traits):
Openness to experience
How do the behavioral patterns of individuals with personality disorders change over time?
According to the DSM-5, what must be true to diagnose a personality disorder?
The person’s enduring patterns of behavior must be pervasive and inflexible, as well as stable and of long duration. It must also cause either clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning and be manifested in at least two of the following areas:
Misdiagnoses are common when looking at potential personality disorders due to?
- Many people have traits of more than one PD, there’s a lack of reliable measurement tools,
- diagnostic criteria is not clearly defined, no one theoretical view
What role does temperament play in the etiology of personality disorders?
Temperament lays the early foundation for the development of the adult personality. Since most temperamental and personality traits seem moderately heritable, it is likely that there is a genetic component to certain PDs
The "clusters" of personality disorders found in the DSM-5 are grouped based on what criteria?
These were derived on the basis of what were originally thought to be important similarities of features among the disorders within a given cluster.
What do all of the Cluster A disorders have in common?
Includes: Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal personality disorders
- People with these disorders often seem odd or eccentric, with unusual behavior ranging from
- distrust and suspiciousness to social detachment
What are the Cluster B personality disorders?
- Includes: Histrionic, Narcissistic, Antisocial, and
- Borderline personality disorders
Individuals with these disorders share a tendency to be dramatic, emotional and erratic
How does paranoid schizophrenia differ from
paranoid personality disorder?
- Includes: Avoidant, dependent, and obsessive
- compulsive personality disorders
People with these disorders often show anxiety and fearfulness
A woman is vain and self-centered. When she goes out, it is not at all uncommon for her to do things that ensure she is the center of attention. Her close friends describe her as a "drama queen.” Assuming that her behavior is sufficient to warrant a diagnosis, which of the following personality disorders is she most likely to be diagnosed with?
Histrionic Personality Disorder
A person shows little emotion and is a loner. He has no social relationships, other than his family, and he seems to experience little pleasure, if any. What personality disorder might Sam have?
Avoidant Personality Disorder
Symptoms of what disorder usually precede antisocial personality disorder?
Psychopathy or Sociopathy
Psychoactive substance dependence is defined as?
Use of a psychoactive substance to the point of where one has a marked physiological need for increasing amounts of the substance to achieve the desired effects
Tolerance is defined as?
Need for increased amounts of a substance to achieve the desired effects
How do alcohol problems affect your life span?
The life span of the average person with alcohol dependence is about 12 years shorter than that of the average person without the disorder
Which mental disorder is most commonly comorbid with alcoholism?
How does alcohol affect the brain at
Lower levels: alcohol stimulates the brain cells and activates the brain’s “pleasure areas,” which release opium-like endogenous opioids that are stored in the body
Higher levels: alcohol depresses brain functioning, inhibiting one of the brain’s excitatory neurotransmitters, glutamate, which in turn slows down activity in the brain
Korsakoff's psychosis is now known in the DSM-5 as?
- Persisting Alcohol Disorder or Alcohol Amnestic Disorder: A neurological condition
- resulting from chronic alcohol abuse and severe malnutrition (vitamin B)
Studies of the genetics of alcoholism have
- Almost 1/3 of alcoholics had at least one parent with an alcohol problem … alcohol abuse
- problems clearly tend to run in the family
An individual with which personality disorder is most likely to also abuse
The tension-reduction model of alcoholism
- Alcoholics drink to relax – the typical alcohol abuser is discontented with his/her life
- and is unable/unwilling to tolerate tension and stress.
Christian and Christine are both being treated for alcohol dependence by being given medications. Christian's medication makes him vomit if he drinks after taking it. Christine's medication reduces her craving for alcohol. Most likely Christian is taking ________; Christine is taking ________.
causes violent vomiting when followed by ingestion of alcohol
- Naltrexone: an opiate antagonist that helps
- reduce the craving for alcohol by blocking its pleasure-producing effects
The abstinence violation effect is defined as?
- Even minor transgressions are seen by the abstainer as having drastic significance: An
- abstinent person may hold that they should not, under any circumstances, transgress or give in to the old habit.
Melissa has been using cocaine for many months. She decides to stop. She can
Symptoms of depression, fatigue, disturbed sleep, and increased dreaming
What are some of the cross-cultural similarities and differences concerning sexual behavior?
Attitudes toward premarital sex and sexual behavior varies greatly.
Men have a greater emphasis on their partner’s attractiveness. All known cultures have a taboo against sex with close relatives.
What theory suggests that “wasting semen through masturbation and patronizing prostitutes is damaging to the nervous system?"
Kellogg's cornflakes were designed to be
anti-masturbation food because it was believed that?
Consumption of meat increased sexual desire
It was once believed that masturbation caused what mental health condition?
The Kinsey report is noteworthy about homosexuality in that it said?
Homosexuality was more common than previously believed.
What are the reasons given for the elevated risk for mental problems in homosexual men
One plausible explanation is that such problems result from stressful life events related to societal stigmatizing of homosexuality
What is a paraphilia?
Persistent sexual behavior patterns in which unusual objects/subjects, rituals, or situations are required for full sexual satisfaction
Rachel has a shoe fetish - she is not able to enjoy sex unless her partner is wearing her shoes. She needs to be touching the shoes
in order to achieve sexual gratification. She becomes aroused by the sight of her own shoes. What is unique about Rachel's case of shoe fetishism?
she was harming no-one, so it is paraphilia, not paraphilic disorder
Frotteurism is defined as?
A term that refers to interest in rubbing (usually one’s pelvis or erect penis) against a non-consenting person for sexual gratification
The most common theory about voyeurs
Voyeurism is probably the most common illegal sexual activity. Voyeuristic activities often provide important compensatory feelings of power and secret domination over an unsuspecting victim, which may contribute to the maintenance of this pattern.
Matthew has always felt he was really a girl. He dressed in girl's clothing as a child and still wants to be a girl. He is sure a mistake was made and that he is inhabiting the wrong sexed body. Matthew's symptoms suggest a diagnosis of?
Gender Identity Disorder (Gender Dysphoria)
The only treatment that has been shown to be effective in treating gender dysphoria is?
Surgical sex reassignment
Rod is a pedophile. If his sexual responsiveness is similar to that found in studies of pedophiles, he will respond to erotic pictures of?
Psychosis is a striking and essential feature of schizophrenia. Psychosis is defined as?
A significant loss of contact with reality
Schizophrenia occurs in about 1 out of_____ in the general population?
The majority of cases of schizophrenia begin within what age period?
20-24 years of age
Delusions are defined as?
An erroneous belief that is fixed and firmly held despite clear contradictory evidence
Hallucinations are defined as?
- A sensory experience that seems real to the person having it, but occurs in the absence
- of any external perceptual stimulus
What type of hallucinations are the most common?
"My father and I swiggered to the beach yesterday." This is an example of what psychotic symptom?
Neologisms - made up words
What are considered the “negative” symptoms of schizophrenia?
Flat affect (blunted emotional expressiveness)
Alogia (very little speech)
Avolition (inability to initiate/persist in goal directed activities
Dianna exhibits a variety of schizophrenic symptoms including delusions, auditory hallucinations, and formal thought disorder. She has been symptomatic for a little more than a month. Dianna qualifies for a diagnosis of?
What factors have been found to lead to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia?
- Influenced, Environment, Prenatal Exposure (Rhesus incompatibility, complications, nutritional deficiency, maternal stress), Brain lesions, frontal and temporal lobes, hippocampus and amygdala, dopamine and glutamate
A mother constantly demands that her son
show her how much she is loved, but when he tries to hug her she yells at him to be more discreet. No matter what the child does, he is wrong. Further, the mother prohibits him from commenting on this paradox. What does this interaction pattern best illustrate?
Double - Bind Hypothesis
In the DSM-5, the disorders now known
as “Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic and Other Cognitive Disorders” will be part of a newly proposed category called?
When Mrs. Smith experienced a stroke, a
small area of her brain was deprived of oxygenated blood. This may have
resulted in a _____?
Focal brain lesion
Suddenly, Karen is unable to remember what she was doing. She screams that bugs are crawling all over the walls. She begins to wildly swing her arms around. She can't fall asleep at night, but finally falls asleep at daylight. Karen most likely has which disorder?
The first sign of neurocognitive disorder in older adults is typically?
Lack of memory for recent events
The particular disease that most commonly causes dementia is?
Degenerative Brain Disease – Alzheimer’s disease
In order for a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to be “definitively” made one must do
What types of delusions are most commonly seen in Alzheimer's disease?
Persecution and jealousy
The first neurons to be affected in Alzheimer's disease are cells that release what
After the car accident, Kirstie was unable to remember what happened from the time of
the crash until the following morning. Kirstie appears to have experienced __________ amnesia?
Suppose you were the director of a mental
health center that provided treatment for children. Based on research, you would expect that your treatment population would be comprised of?
Children under the age of 18 and their family members
Among children, the most commonly diagnosed disorders are?
ADHD, ODD (Oppositional Defiant Disorder), Anxiety, and Depression
A young child who tries to kill him/herself
may have what type(s) of beliefs?
Hopelessness and worthlessness.. and believing they are internally flawed
Children with ADHD that have symptoms of hyperactivity are viewed by their peers as?
Intrusive and immature – negatively viewed
As children with ADHD become adolescents and adults, their symptoms?
Remain the same or become worse
The term "juvenile delinquent" is defined as?
A legal term used to refer to violations of the law committed by minors
Girls with conduct disorder present with what problems and are at risk for?
Unwed pregnancy and substance abuse
The parenting style of adults who have children with conduct disorders typically involves?
Ineffective parenting, rejection, harsh and inconsistent discipline, and parental neglect
Separation anxiety disorder is defined as?
Developmentally inappropriate and excessive fear or anxiety concerning separation from those to whom the individual is attached
How do anxiety disorders of childhood change as the child ages?
They often taper off as the child is exposed to positive events: i.e. making friends
Childhood and adult depression differ in what ways?
- Clear differences in the hormonal levels and in response to treatment. Strong correlation between depression severity and right amygdala activity … irritability is often
- found as a major symptom and can be substituted for depressed mood.
Juliet is a depressed child. When she wins a prize at school for her art project, how is she likely to explain it?
An attribution to external, specific, and unstable causes
After her parents’ divorce, Kelly began wetting the bed. She wets the bed almost nightly and is embarrassed about it in the morning. What disorder would this 7-year-old be diagnosed with?
What has been found to be the most effective approach to the treatment of enuresis?
Conditioning (learning-based) procedures
Coprolalia is defined as?
- A verbal tic in which an individual utters
- obscenities aloud
Autism is defined as?
- Pervasive developmental disorder beginning in
- infancy and involving a wide range of problematic behaviors – deficits in language, perception, and motor development; defective reality testing; and social withdrawal
Shortly after birth, Darren's head began to grow. At age 5, a shunt was placed in his
skull to drain fluid. He has seizures, trouble seeing, and is mildly mentally retarded. Darren's most likely diagnosis is?
Mild intellectual disability
What are universal interventions concerned with?
- Altering conditions that can cause or contribute to mental disorders (risk factors) and
- establishing conditions that foster positive mental health (protective factors)
What are the requirements for psychosocial
Develop effective problem solving skills
Build their “accurate” identity (NOT “thin is in”)
Preparation for problems associated with life stages
The effectiveness of the school–based
intervention program called DARE has been shown to be?
Combined prevention programs that educate about drugs and teach skills needed to refuse
alcohol and drug use demands have shown?
- That the most effective way to prevent complex problems (substance abuse) is through the
- use of multicomponent programs that combine aspects of various programs
Indicated prevention emphasizes?
- The early detection and prompt treatment of maladaptive behavior in a person’s family and
- community setting
Community-based treatment programs are now referred to as?
What are some of the unforeseen consequences of deinstitutionalization?
Homelessness and prisons
Forensic psychology is concerned with?
- Focused on the rights of patients and the rights
- of members of society to be protected from mentally disturbed individuals
Which type of patient can be committed against
their will to a psychiatric hospital?
- Must prove to be a danger to
- themselves or others
- Incapable of providing for their basic
- physical needs
- Unable to make responsible decisions
- about hospitalization
In need of treatment or care in a hospital
Emergency hospitalization without a commitment hearing is permitted when?
If there is no time to get a court order for commitment or if there is imminent danger
Homicidal behavior amongst former patients is
greatest with a diagnosis of?
- Schizophrenia and mania and patients with
- well-entrenched delusions
What kind of mistake do most mental health
professionals make when assessing dangerousness?
- They typically over-predict violence and
- consider felons to be more dangerous than they actually are, and usually predict a greater percentage of clients to be dangerous than actually become involved in violent acts
What is one of the best predictors of future violence?
A past history of violence
In most states that have a Tarasoff-type rule, when a client threatens someone, a therapist must do what?
Warn the prospective victim via “reasonable efforts” as well as inform an appropriate law enforcement agency
What would you like to do?
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