Unit 8- Radiation
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How many different types of radiation particles are there and what are their names?
3 different types
alpha, beta and gamma
what is the difference between the different radiation particles?
- Alpha particles:
- They are very ionising
- They have a positive charge
- They cannot penetrate through skin or tissue
- Beta particles:
- They are less ionising than alpha particles
- They have a negative charge
- They cannot pass through the skin or tissue
- Gamma particles:
- The level of ionising radiation is very little
- They have a very short length Electro magnetic radiation
- They can pass through skin and tissue well
What does the term organ affinity mean?
That a radioactive substance is absorbed by one group of cells within the body
What does the term half-life mean?
the length of time it takes for a radioactive substance to decay in activity by half
what do the terms stochastic and non-stochastic mean?
Stochastic: Illnesses can be caused by radiation through damage to DNA, this is unpredictable.
Side Note: the damage can either occur in full form such as cancer cells or reproductive cells cause hereditary issues or cannot occur at all. The danger comes from the radiation dose.
Non-stochastic: causes side effects of radiation exposure and does not change the DNA of someone's cells. lots of radiation will cause the non- stochastic effect of losing hair etc. little exposure would cause diarrhoea.
What material absorbs;
A. alpha particles
B. beta particles
C. gamma particles
- A. Paper
- B. Aluminium
- C. Lead
What equipment may be used to test which type of radioactive substance they have present?
A Geiger counter
Describe and explain an experiment which allows us to determine what radioactive substance is present.
First we would place the radioactive substance behind paper with the Geiger counter on the other side and if it detects radiation of nothing then this is Alpha radiation.
If it does detect this then place it in an aluminium box and if this doesn't detect then this is Beta.
If it detects radiation still then place it in a lead box and if this detects little or none then this is Gamma radiation.
How do you calculate the biological half-life of something when total efficiency half-life and total physical half-life is given?
Total biological ÷ 1 = total physical ÷ 1 - total efficiency ÷ 1
eg; tot. physical-5 tot. efficiency-2
5 ÷ 1 = 5
2 ÷ 1 = 2
3 ÷ 1 = 3
3 is the total biological half-life
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